Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 12 - 2021
Socioeconomic Inequality in Progress in SDG Indicators on Maternal Health in India from 2006 - 2016

SK Singh* and Fred Arnold

Professor and Head, Department of Survey Research and Data Analytics, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India
*Corresponding Author: SK Singh, Professor and Head, Department of Survey Research and Data Analytics, International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai, India.
Received: October 05, 2021; Published: November 26, 2021


Poor maternal health poses a substantial threat to the population, health, and social wellbeing in most developing nations like India. Committing to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), India reduced maternal mortality by 75% between 1990 and 2015 through various programmes and interventions and is on track to achieve the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target of an MMR below 70 by 2030. Despite a substantial improvement in maternal health indicators in India over the last two decades, there are sizable heterogeneities based on caste, class, social groups, and various other forms of social exclusion. This study aims to exemplify the changes in crucial SDG indicators of maternal health over more than a decade and to decompose the co-factors behind those changes. The data used in this paper have been taken from two recent rounds of the National Family Health Survey (2005 - 06 and 2015 - 16). The predicted probability of change and Fairlie’s decomposition are used to decompose the changes in maternal health indicators over the two survey periods. The most crucial indicators to track the progress in maternal health indicators in India are antenatal care (ANC) in the first trimester, four or more ANC visits, use of skilled birth attendants, anaemia among women, and a body mass index (BMI) of 25.0 kg/m2 or above, analysed in the context of various socioeconomic, behavioural, and programmatic covariates.

Keywords: Socioeconomic Inequality; SDG Indicators; Maternal Health in India


  1. Yaya S., et al. “Socio-economic factors associated with choice of delivery place among mothers: A population-based cross-sectional study in Guinea-Bissau”. BMJ Global Health (2019): e001341.
  2. Tarekegn SM., et al. “Determinants of maternal health service utilization in Ethiopia: analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey”. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth1 (2014): 161.
  3. Nguyen PH., et al. “Trends and drivers of change in the prevalence of anaemia among 1 million women and children in India, 2006 to 2016”. BMJ Global Health5 (2018).
  4. Gouda J and Prusty RK. “Overweight and obesity among women by economic stratum in urban India”. Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition1 (2014): 79.
  5. Nagarkar AM and Kulkarni SS. “Obesity and its effects on health in middle-aged women from slums of Pune”. Journal of Mid-life Health2 (2018): 79.
  6. Vora KS., et al. “Maternal Health Situation in India: A Case Study”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition2 (2009): 184-201.
  7. Singh MK., et al. “Utilization of ASHA services under NRHM in relation to maternal health in rural Lucknow, India”. South East Asia Journal of Public Health1 (2013): 24-27.
  8. Agarwal S., et al. “The impact of India’s accredited social health activist (ASHA) program on the utilization of maternity services: a nationally representative longitudinal modelling study”. Human Resources for Health 4 (2019): 1-13.
  9. Ghosh A and Ghosh R. “Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare Maternal health care in India: A reflection of 10 years of National Health Mission on the Indian maternal health scenario”. Sexual and Reproductive Healthcare (2020): 100530.
  10. Gupta R and Talukdar B. “Frequency and Timing of Antenatal Care Visits and Its Impact on Neonatal Mortality in EAG States of India”. Journal of Neonatal Biology (2017).
  11. Moore N., et al. “Determinants of first trimester attendance at antenatal care clinics in the Amazon region of Peru: A case-control study”. PLoS ONE (2017).
  12. Arthur E. “Wealth and antenatal care use: Implications for maternal health care utilization in Ghana”. Health Economics Review (2012).
  13. Pandey S. “Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Central Nepal”. International Journal of MCH and AIDS (IJMA) (2013).
  14. Rurangirwa AA., et al. “Determinants of poor utilization of antenatal care services among recently delivered women in Rwanda; a population based study”. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth (2017).
  15. Shibre G and Mekonnen W. “Socio-economic inequalities in ANC attendance among mothers who gave birth in the past 12 months in Debre Brehan town and surrounding rural areas, North East Ethiopia: A community-based survey”. Reproductive Health (2019).
  16. Manyeh AK., et al. “Socio-demographic determinants of skilled birth attendant at delivery in rural southern Ghana”. BMC Research Notes (2017).
  17. Wong KLM., et al. “Socio-economic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?” PLoS ONE (2017).
  18. Joseph G., et al. “Socio-economic inequalities in access to skilled birth attendance among urban and rural women in low-income and middle-income countries”. BMJ Global Health (2018).
  19. Balarajan YS., et al. “Changing patterns of social inequalities in anaemia among women in india: Cross-sectional study using nationally representative data”. BMJ Open3 (2013).
  20. Tanwi TS., et al. “Socio-economic correlates of overweight and obesity among ever-married urban women in Bangladesh”. BMC Public Health (2019).
  21. Luhar S., et al. “Do trends in the prevalence of overweight by socio-economic position differ between India’s most and least economically developed states?” BMC Public Health (2019).
  22. Dimbuene Z., et al. “Women’s education and utilization of maternal health services in Africa: A multi-country and socioeconomic status analysis”. Journal of Biosocial Science6 (2017): 725-748.
  23. Weitzman A. “The effects of women's education on maternal health: Evidence from Peru”. Social Science and Medicine 180 (2017): 1-9.
  24. Barman B., et al. “Impact of education on the utilization of maternal health care services: An investigation from National Family Health Survey (2015–16) in India”. Children and Youth Services Review 108 (2020): 104642.
  25. Srivastava A., et al. “Correlates of maternal health care utilization in Rohilkhand Region, India”. Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research3 (2014): 417-425.
  26. Machira K and Palamuleni M. “Factors influencing women’s utilization of public health care services during childbirth in Malawi public health facility utilization”. African Health Sciences2 (2017): 400-408.
  27. Chakrabarti S., et al. “Identifying sociodemographic, programmatic and dietary drivers of anaemia reduction in pregnant Indian women over 10 years”. Public Health Nutrition 21 (2018): 2424-2433.
  28. Ahankari AS., et al. “Prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia and risk factors in 1010 adolescent girls from rural Maharashtra, India: a cross-sectional survey”. Public Health 142 (2017): 159-166.
  29. Gautam S., et al. “Determining factors for the prevalence of anemia in women of reproductive age in Nepal: Evidence from recent national survey data”. PloS ONE6 (2019): e0218288.
  30. Onyeneho NG., et al. “Determinants of childhood anemia in India”. Scientific Reports1 (2019): 1-7.
Citation: SK Singh and Fred Arnold. "Socioeconomic Inequality in Progress in SDG Indicators on Maternal Health in India from 2006 - 2016”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5.12 (2021): 68-85.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 21, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.