Short Communication
Volume 5 Issue 7 - 2021
Workplace Violence among Healthcare Workers: A Review of Causes and Effects
Doaa Allan1, Mohammad ALBashtawy2*, Omar Al Omari3, Bayan ALBashtawy4, Abdullah Alkhawaldeh5, Sa’d ALBashtawy6, Mohammad Suliman7, Fadi Fawares8, Asem Abdalrahim9 and Zaid ALBashtawy10
1Master Student, Community Health Nursing, Princess Salma Faculty of Nursing, AL al-Bayt University, Jordan
2Professor, Princess Salma Faculty of Nursing, AL al-Bayt University, Jordan
3Associate Professor, Faculty of Nursing, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
4Medical Intern, King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan
5Associate Professor, Princess Salma Faculty of Nursing, AL Al-Bayt University, Jordan
6Faculty of Medicine, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan, Jordan
7Associate Professor, Princess Salma Faculty of Nursing, AL al-Bayt University, Jordan
8Nurse Educator at King Hussein Cancer Center, Amman, Jordan
9Assistant Professor, Princess Salma Faculty of Nursing, AL Al-Bayt University, Jordan
10Faculty of Medicine, Yarmouk University, Jordan
*Corresponding Author: Mohammed ALBashtawy, Professor, Community and Mental Health Department, Princess Salma Faculty of Nursing, AL al-Bayt University, Jordan.
Received: June 18, 2021; Published: August 16, 2021


Aggression and violent behavior in the workplace is a growing phenomenon. The aim of the current paper was to review studies related to the causes and effects ofWPV among health care workers. The electronic searching method used the Google Scholar database to search for the most relevant studies. The WPV is a significant safety and health issue. The violence risk factors differ among health care settings. The WPV causes are staff-related and clients’ related. It is a significant problem that may contribute to a negative effect. Interventional studies that test the influence of specific approaches or programs on reducing WPV are vital.

Keywords: Workplace; Violence; Healthcare Workers


  1. World Health Organization (WHO). “Framework guidelines for addressing workplace violence in the health sector”. Geneva, Switzerland: International Labour Office (ILO), International Council of Nurses (ICN), World Health Organization (WHO), Public Services International (PSI); (2002).
  2. Chen S., et al. “Workplace violence and its effect on burnout and turnover attempt among Chinese medical staff”. Archives of Environmental and Occupational Health6 (2016): 330-337.
  3. Li Z YCM., et al. “Workplace violence against medical staff of Chinese children's hospitals: a cross-sectional study”. PLoS One6 (2017): e0179373.
  4. ALBashtawy M and Aljezawi M. “Emergency nurses' perspective of workplace violence in Jordanian hospitals: A national survey”. International Emergency Nursing 24 (2016): 61-65.
  5. AlBashtawy M. "Impact of radiotherapy treatment on Jordanian cancer patients’ quality of life and fatigue”. (2014). ‏
  6. AL Bashtawy M., et al. "Looking at school nurses' roles in tackling overweight and obesity”. British Journal of School Nursing8 (2014): 402-404. ‏
  7. Batiha AM., et al. “Exploring the competency of the Jordanian intensive care nurses towards endotracheal tube and oral care practices for mechanically ventilated patients: an observational study”. Global Journal of Health Science 1 (2013): 203. ‏
  8. Al-ghzawi H., et al. "The impact of wars and conflicts on mental health of Arab population”. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science6 (2014): 237-242. ‏
  9. Tawalbeh LI., et al. "The relationship between social support and adherence to healthy lifestyle among patients with coronary artery disease in the north of Jordan”. Clinical Nursing Research2 (2015): 121-138. ‏
  10. ALBashtawy M., et al. "Workplace violence toward emergency department staff in Jordanian hospitals: a cross-sectional study”. Journal of Nursing Research1 (2015): 75-81. ‏
  11. Batiha A-M, et al. "Quality of life and fatigue among Jordanian cancer patients”. Iranian Journal of Public Health12 (2015): 1704-1705. ‏
  12. Al-Ali NM., et al. “The impact of training program on nurses' attitudes toward workplace violence in Jordan”. Applied Nursing Research 30 (2016): 83-89.
  13. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. “Common Reasons for Workplace Violence”. (2020).
  14. Rodwell J and Demir D. “Oppression and exposure as differentiating predictors of types of workplace violence for nurses”. Journal of Clinical Nursing15-16 (2012): 2296-2305.
  15. Al‐Omari H. “Physical and verbal workplace violence against nurses in Jordan”. International Nursing Review1 (2015): 111-118.
  16. Al-Omari H., et al. "Workplace violence against nurses working in psychiatric hospitals in Jordan”. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing5 (2019): 58-62. ‏
  17. Alhamdoun A. “Managing Preoperative Anxiety among Patients Undergoing General Surgery”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry6(2020): 01-03.
  18. Suliman M., et al. “Effect of nurse managers’ leadership styles on predicted nurse turnover”. Nursing Management2(2021).
  19. Al-zubi B., et al. “Barriers to Reporting Medication Errors among Nurses: A Review Paper”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry8(2020): 01-03.
  20. Magabla A., et al. “Conflict in nursing: A Review Paper”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry9 (2020): 01-03.
  21. Al Kazaleh A., et al. “Effects of Deep Breathing Exercise on Patient with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease”. EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine11(2020): 114-117.
  22. Al Qadire M., et al. "Public Attitudes toward Cancer and Cancer Patients: A Jordanian National Online Survey”. Middle East Journal of Cancer (2020). ‏
  23. Howeri NM., et al. “Nurses’ Knowledge Regarding Care Provided to Patients with Angina”. EC Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine1(2021): 01-04.
  24. AL-rawashdeh N., et al. “Nurses Roles in Providing Care for Patient with COVID-19”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care1 (2020).
  25. Shudaifat Y., et al. “Managing Pain in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients”. Journal of Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicin4 (2021): 1-6.
  26. Olimat F., et al. “Effectiveness of Exercise to Reduce Cancer Related Fatigue: A Literature Review”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care5(2021): 29-35.
  27. Alzyoud B., et al. "Nurses Knowledge Regarding Prevention Protocol of COVID-19 in Emergency Departments”. Medico Legal Update3 (2021): 168-170. ‏
  28. Al-Nuaimi, H., et al. "Impact of Occupational Stress on Nurses’ Job Performance According to Nurses Perception”. Medico Legal Update3 (2021): 252-255. ‏
  29. Goblan M., et al. "Patient-related Barriers to Pain Management among Cancer Patients”. Medico Legal Update3 (2021): 256-259. ‏
  30. Olimat Y., et al. "Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Pain Management among ICU Nurse’s”. Medico Legal Update3 (2021): 267-269. ‏
  31. Shudaifat Y., et al. "The Role of Nursing Practice to Prevent Ventilator-associated Pneumonia in the Intensive Care Units”. Medico Legal Update3 (2021): 270-273.
  32. Mohammad KI., et al. "Informative title: Effects of social support, parenting stress and self‐efficacy on postpartum depression among adolescent mothers in Jordan”. Journal of Clinical Nursing (2021).
  33. Vrablik MC., et al. "Identification of processes that mediate the impact of workplace violence on emergency department healthcare workers in the USA: results from a qualitative study”. BMJ open8 (2019): e031781.
  34. Erdur B., et al. “Assessment of the relation of violence and burnout among physicians working in the emergency departments in Turkey”. Ulusal Travma ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi (2015): 21.
  35. Nowrouzi-Kia, B., et al. "Antecedent factors in different types of workplace violence against nurses: a systematic review”. Aggression and Violent Behavior 44 (2019): 1-7. ‏
  36. AbuAlRub RF., and Al-Asmar AH. “Psychological violence in the workplace among Jordanian hospital nurses”. Journal of Transcultural Nursing1 (2014): 6-14.
  37. Hamadneh S., et al. "Sudden infant death syndrome in the middle east: an exploration of the literature on rates, risk factors, high risk groups and intervention programs”. Research Journal of Medical Sciences4 (2016): 199-204.
  38. Alkhawaldeh A., et al. "Long-term conditions in older adults using primary care services”. Primary Health Care2 (2016).
  39. Abd El-Razek., et al. "The relationship between sleep disturbance in late pregnancy and labor outcomes”. The International Journal of Health 4 (2016): 12-16. ‏
  40. AlAzzam M., et al. "School Nurses’ Role in Helping Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders”. NASN School Nurse1 (2017): 36-38. ‏
  41. Albashtawy, M., et al. "The Health Belief Model’s Impacts on the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine by Parents or Guardians of Children with Cancer”. Iranian Journal of Public Health5 (2016): 708-709. ‏
  42. Suliman M, et al. "Exploring Safety Culture in Jordanian Hospitals”. Journal of Nursing Care Quality3 (2017): E1-E7. ‏
  43. Alhalaiqa F., et al. "Adherence to Antipsychotic Drug Measured by an Arabic Version of Morisky Scale”. Issues in Mental Health Nursing12 (2016): 975-982. ‏
  44. Alazzam M., et al. "Pattern of interaction and relationships between family members”. International Journal of Health1 (2017): 45-47. ‏
  45. Freij M., et al. "Awareness and knowledge of ovarian cancer symptoms and risk factors: A survey of Jordanian women”. Clinical Nursing Research7 (2018): 826-840. ‏
  46. Aloush SM., et al. "Compliance of nurses and hospitals with ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention guidelines: A Middle Eastern survey”. Journal of Nursing Care Quality3 (2018): E8-E14. ‏
  47. Suliman M., et al. "Knowledge and practices of isolation precautions among nurses in Jordan”. American Journal of Infection Control6 (2018): 680-684. ‏
  48. Al Saraireh FA., et al. "The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy versus psychoeducation in the management of depression among patients undergoing haemodialysis”. Issues in Mental Health Nursing6 (2018): 514-518. ‏
  49. Albashtawy M., “Workplace violence against nurses in emergency departments in Jordan”. International Nursing Review4 (2013): 550-555.
  50. Gharaibeh H., et al. "Clinical burdens of β-thalassemia major in affected children”. Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology3 (2018): 182-187.
  51. Khatatbeh MM., et al. "Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Among Jordanians: A Case-Control Study”. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP2 (2018): 577. ‏
  52. Al Qadire M., et al. "Predictors of anxiety and depression among parents of children with cancer in Jordan”. Psycho‐Oncology3 (2018). ‏
  53. Al Omari O., et al. "A Review of the Short Form Health Survey–Version 2”. Journal of Nursing Measurement1 (2019): 77-86. ‏
  54. Aloush SM., et al. "Compliance of Middle Eastern hospitals with the central line associated bloodstream infection prevention guidelines”. Applied Nursing Research 43 (2018): 56-60. ‏
  55. Tawalbeh LI., et al. "The most and the least performed self-care behaviors among patients with heart failure in Jordan”. Clinical Nursing Research2 (2020): 108-116. ‏
  56. Al Saraireh FA., et al. "The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy versus psychoeducation in the management of depression among patients undergoing haemodialysis”. Issues in Mental Health Nursing6 (2018): 514-518. ‏
  57. Al Qadire M., et al. "Lifestyle and Dietary Factors and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Multicentre Case-Control Study”. Clinical Nursing Research8 (2019): 992-1008. ‏
  58. Aloush SM., et al. "Cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for undergraduates from nonmedical majors: Effectiveness of the three tiers model”. Nursing Forum4 (2018). ‏
  59. Mansi K., et al. “Effect of chronic renal dialysis on the level of thyroid gland hormones among patients with chronic renal failure”. Research Journal of Biological Sciences1(2020): 1-4.
  60. Salame HF and AL Bashtawy M. “Managing Workplace Stress among Health Care Providers”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry8 (2019): 792-794.
  61. Khraisat O., et al. “Shared governance: a children’s hospital journey to clinical nursing excellence”. Journal of Research in Nursing4 (2020): 347-358.
  62. Al Kazaleh A and AL Bashtawy M. “Therapeutic Communication Skills in Nursing Education and Practice”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry12 (2019): 01-04.
  63. Suliman M., et al. “The incidence of peripheral intravenous catheter phlebitis and risk factors among pediatric patients”. Journal of Pediatric Nursing 50 (2020): 89-93.
  64. Howeri NM and ALBashtawy M. “Workplace Stress among Nurses in Intensive Care Units”. EC Psychology and Psychiatry 9.3 (2020): 01-03.
  65. Al‐Natour A., et al. “Marital Violence affecting female nurses and its physical and mental health consequences”. International Nursing Review2 (2020): 258-264.
Citation: Doaa Allan., et al. “Workplace Violence among Healthcare Workers: A Review of Causes and Effects”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5.9 (2021): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

October Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the October issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before November 04, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to