Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 6 - 2021
Spatio-temporal Distribution of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), in Ed Daein Town, Ed Daein Locality, East Darfur State, Sudan (July 2016 - June 2017)
Abdrahman Khowgly AA1, Nabil H H Bashir2, Abdalmajed MA3*, Assad YOH4, Elkhalifa SM5, Jumma YF6 and Alminshawi AM6
1Medical Entomologist, Ministry of Health, East Darfur State, Sudan
2Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, Blue Bile National Institute for Communicable Diseases, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan
3University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan
4Senior Public Health Specialist, Khartoum Malaria Free Initiative, Sudan
5FMOH (Medical Entomologist Consultant), Sudan
6Senior Public Health Specialist, WHO-Office, Khartoum Sudan
*Corresponding Author: Abdalmajed MA, University of Gezira, Wad Medani, Sudan.
Received: April 14, 2021; Published: May 25, 2021


Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) have a great importance in public health. Aedes- borne diseases (ABDs), especially the dengue virus (DENV) has increased and spreaded worldwide. The study is one of a series of studies aimed to map Aedes species in the Sudan and determine some aspects of their ecology in Ed Daein town, Ed Daein Locality, East Darfur state (EDS), Sudan. A cross-sectional survey during July 2016 - June 2017 was conducted to determine seasonal and geographical distribution, larval habitats of Aedes mosquitoes. Five sentinel sites/neighborhoods/residential areas, namely, Alarab, Almatar, Alnahda, Alguba and Moasker Alneem with different environmental settings were selected as urban and periurban areas. In each neighborhood, water containers in houses and larval habitats were surveyed for larvae and pupae of Aedes spp. In each household (HH), all water containers were checked for the presence (positivity) of these immature stages of Aedes spp. to describe the larval habitats, their distribution, seasonality and calculate Stegomyia indices, i.e. the house index (HI), the container index (CI), Breteau index (BI) and pupal/demographic index (P/DI). Larvae and pupae from different habitats were also sampled, preserved in 70% ethanol in Eppendorff tubes for species identification. From a total of 382 (89.8%) larvae, were identified as Ae. aegypti, while 10.2% were identified as Ae. albopictus. From 3,243 containers inspected, 8.2% were found positive for Aedes species. The highest percentage of positivity was found in clay pots (zeers) containers (77.9%), followed by barrels (20.2%). High occurrence of larvae and pupae was shown in Alnahda neighborhood with mean of 6.5/5 dips and 2.2/5 dips, respectively. The number of pupae was significantly different in all study sites. The highest mean number of larvae was found to be (10.1/5 dips) in rainy-season in comparison to the dry- season while the high mean umber of pupae was (3.3/5 dips). No significant difference was found between HI during the different months of the study. The highest HI was recorded in July 2016 (98.2%). Significant differences between BI, CI and P/DI, during different months of the study were detected. The high BI was detected in October 2016 (30.0%), High CI was reported in November 2016 (13.9%) and the highest P/DI was recorded in October 2016 (15.7%). Ae. aegypti was the prevalent species in the study sites. Zeers and barrels were the key containers for the Aedes species breeding. Large-scale studies on spatio-distribution of Aedes mosquito in the remain localities of East Darfur State is highly recommended in near future.


Keywords: Aedes Mosquito; Ed Daein Locality; East Darfur State; Sudan


  1. Service M. “Medical Entomology for Students”. 5th edition (University of Cambridge) (2012): 90-98.
  2. Reinert JF., et al. “Phylogeny and classification of tribe Aedini (Diptera: Culicidae)”. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 157 (2009): 700-794.
  3. Simmons CP., et al. “Dengue”. New England Journal of Medicine15 (2012): 1423-1432.
  4. Jentes ES., et al. “The revised global yellow fever risk map and recommendations for vaccination, 2010: consensus of the Informal WHO Working Group on Geographic Risk for Yellow Fever”. The Lancet Infectious Diseases8 (2011): 622-632.
  5. Leparc-Goffart I., et al. “Chikungunya in the Americas”. The Lancet9916 (2014): 514.
  6. Guzman MG., et al. “Dengue: a continuing global threat”. Nature Reviews Microbiology12 (2010): S7-16.
  7. Locally acquired dengue - Key West, Florida, 2009-2010”. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 59 (2010): 577-581.
  8. Dengue and severe dengue [factsheet. Geneva (2012a): 117.
  9. Gould EA., et al. “First cases of autochthonous dengue fever and chikungunya fever in France: from bad dream to reality!”. Clinical Microbiology and Infection12 (2010): 1702-1704.
  10. Global strategy for dengue prevention and control 2012-2020. World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland (2012b).
  11. Malik A., et al. “Dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreak in children in Port Sudan”. Journal of Infection and Public Health 4 (2011): 1-6.
  12. Abdallah TM., et al. “Epidemiology of dengue infections in Kassala, Eastern Sudan”. Journal of Medical Virology 84 (2012): 500-503.
  13. Lewis DJ. “Observations on the distribution and taxonomy of Culicidae (Diptera) in the Sudan”. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London1 (1945): 1-24.
  14. (Expand Program of Immunization). The Annual Report”. East Darfur State. Sudan (2014).
  15. Focks DA and Alexander N. “Multicountry study of Aedes aegypti pupal productivity survey methodology: Findings and recommendations, TDR/IRM/Den/06.1 (2006).
  16. Huang YM. “The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Afrotropical region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae)”. Zootaxa 700 (2004): 1-120.
  17. Report of the Consultation on Key Issues in Dengue Vector Control (1995).
  18. Gratz NG. “Emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases”. Annual Review of Entomology1 (1999): 51-75.
  19. Eisen L and Eisen RJ. “Using Geographic Information Systems and Decision Support Systems for the Prediction, Prevention and Control of Vector-Borne Diseases”. Annual Reviews of Entomology 56 (2011): 41-61.
  20. Sota T and Mogi M. “Interspecific variation in desiccation survival time and Aedes (Stegomyia) mosquito egg is correlated with habitat and egg size”. Oecologia 90 (1992): 353-358.
  21. Richards SL., et al. “Vector competence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus(Diptera: Culicidae) for dengue virus in Florida Keys”. Journal of Medical Entomology 48 (2012): 942-946.
  22. Juliano SA., et al. “A field test for competitive effects of Aedes albopictus on A. aegypti in South Florida: differences between sites of coexistence and exclusion?” Oecologia 139 (2004): 583-593.
  23. Honório NA., et al. “Preliminary data on the performance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus immatures developing in water-filled tires in Rio de Janeiro”. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 101 (2006): 225-228.
  24. Omer MOKH. “Surveillance and Identification of the Aedes Mosquitoes Species (Diptera: Culicidae) and Determination of their Breeding Sites in Port Sudan Town, Red Sea State, Sudan (2014-2015). M.Sc.Thesis, 2018, Blue Nile National Institute for Communicable Diseases, University of Gezira, Sudan (2018).
  25. Yahyia THA. “A Survey of Aedes sp. Mosquitoes in Elfasher, North DarfurState, Sudan”. M.Sc. Thesis; University of Gezeira, Sudan (2014).
  26. Sharif AIO. “Species Composition and Habitats of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in El Geneina town, West Darfur State, Sudan (2014)”. M.Sc. Thesis BNNICD University of Gezira (2016).
  27. Fadol AKH. “Spatio-temporal distribution of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in El Geneina town, West Darfur State, Sudan (May 2016-April 2017)”. M.Sc. Thesis, BNNICD, University of Gezira, Sudan (2019).
  28. Thavara U., et al. “Larval occurrence, oviposition behavior and biting activity of potential mosquito vectors of dengue on Samui Island, Thailand”. Journal of Vector Ecology2 (2001): 172-180.
  29. Wongkoon S., et al. “Development sites of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand”. Dengue Bull 31 (2007): 141-152.
  30. AbdoElbage AHA. “(Spatio-temporal Distribution of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera:Culicidae) in Kass Town, South Darfur State, Sudan (2016-2017)”. M.Sc. Thesis Blue Nile National Institute for Communicable Diseases, University of Gezira, Sudan (2018).
  31. Altoum AA. “Spatio-temporal Distribution of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), in Abu Jebaiha Locality, South Kordofan State, Sudan (2016 -2017)”. M.Sc. thesis, University of Gezira, Sudan (2018).
  32. Seidahmed OM., et al. “Spatial and temporal patterns of dengue transmission along a Red Sea coastline: a longitudinal entomological and serological survey in Port Sudan city”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9 (2012): e1821.
  33. Bakr AM., et al. “Spatio-temporal Distribution of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), in Alfasher locality North Darfur State, Sudan”. International Journal of Mosquito Research5 (2018): 127-130.
  34. Eshag OS., et al. “Prevalence, habitat and productivity profiles of Aedes mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sennar state, Sudan”. International Journal of Mosquito Research6 (2019): 102-108.
  35. Mohamed AH., et al. “Aedes mosquitoes in the Republic of the Sudan, with dichotomous keys for the adult and larval stages”. Journal of Natural History9-10 (2017): 513-529.
  36. Dengue: Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control”. WHO/HTM/NTD/DEN/.1 (2009a).
  37. McMichael AJ., et al. “Climate changes and human health”. World Health Organization, Geneva (1996).
  38. Lu L., et al. “Time series analysis of dengue fever and weather in Guangzhou, China”. BMC Public Health 9 (2009): 395-399.
  39. Costa EAPA., et al. “Impact of small variation in temperature and humidity on the reproductive activity and survival of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae)”. Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 54 (2010): 488-493.
  40. Technical quide for a system of yellow fever surveillance (1971).
  41. Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) (Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever in the Americas: guidelines for prevention and control. Washington DC (1994).
  42. Favier C., et al. “Effects of climate and different management strategies on Aedes aegypti breeding sites: a longitudinal survey in Brasilia (DF, Brazil)”. Tropical Medicine and International Health7 (2006): 1104-1118.
  43. Zeidler JD., et al. “Varusdengue em larvas de e sua dinâmica de Aedes aegyptiinfestaçمo, Roraima, Brasil”. Rev Saْde Pْblica 42.6 (2008): 986-991.
  44. Bezerra JMT., et al. “Occurrence of Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) in a Dengue Transmission Area at Coastal Maranhão State, Brazil”. The Open Tropical Medicine Journal1 (2013).
  45. Mellor PS and Leake CJ. “Climatic and geographic influences onarboviral infections and vectors”. Revue Scientifique et Technique 19 (2000): 41-54.
  46. Martens P. “Health and Climate Change”. Earthscan Publications Ltd: London, United Kingdom (1988).
  47. Hales S., et al. “Impacts on health of climate extremes”. In: Climate Change and Human Health-Risks andResponses, (McMichael, A.J; Campbell-Lendrum, D.H.; Corvalan, C.F.; Ebi, K.L.; Githeko, A.K.; Scheraga, J.D. and Woodward, A.; eds). World Health Organization: Geneva, Switzerland (2003): 83-84.
  48. Patz J., et al. “Climate change and infectious diseases. In: Climate Change and Human Health-Risks and Responses”. (McMichael, A.J.; Campbell-Lendrum, D.H.; Corval´an, C.F.; Ebi, K.L.; Githeko, A.; Scheraga, J.D. and Woodward, A.; eds.). World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland (2003): 108.
Citation: Abdalmajed MA., et al. “Spatio-temporal Distribution of Aedes Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), in Ed Daein Town, Ed Daein Locality, East Darfur State, Sudan (July 2016 - June 2017)”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5.6 (2021): 25-42.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

October Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the October issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before November 01, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to