Review Article
Volume 5 Issue 5 - 2021
COVID-19: Significant Biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 Infection
Mark H Chen1 and Nicholas A Kerna2,3*
1Clinic Director, For Your Health, LLC, USA
2Director, SMC–Medical Research, Thailand
3Director of Research, First InterHealth Group, Thailand
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500.
Received: April 08, 2021; Published: April 30, 2021




Abstract

The direct and precise diagnosis of COVID-19 is vital. Symptoms alone are insufficient as various infections manifest comparable COVID-19 symptoms, such as swollen lymph nodes, cough, fever, and fatigue. Thus, health care personnel’s functional knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 infection biomarker levels is imperative in containing the spread of and managing the disease. The immediate detection and interpretation of SARS-CoV-2 infection biomarker levels aid medical personnel in better predicting the disease’s severity and allotting limited resources. Two important biomarkers regarding more severe prognoses of SARS-CoV-2 are inflammatory and blood coagulation biomarkers.

Most patients who have contracted a SARS-CoV-2 infection feel fatigued with fever and cough. Thus, physicians should examine biomarkers (e.g., hematological biomarkers, cytokines, liver enzymes, and coagulation parameters) in differential diagnosis and treatment. The virus employs its spike proteins to bind to ACE2 molecules and capture them as if they were a cell surface receptor, undergoing consequent endocytosis. In severe cases, the virus provokes an extensive inflammatory response, resulting in a cytokine storm. The heightened presence of thrombosis and D-dimer levels intimates the complement system’s involvement in response to a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most critical biomarkers are a significant decrease in lymphocytes and increases in C-reactive protein, D-dimer, cardiac troponin, ferritin, and interleukin-6.

Keywords: Azithromycin; C-Reactive Protein; D-Dimer; Ferritin; Obesity; Respiratory Tract

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Citation: Chen MH, Kerna NA. “COVID-19: Significant Biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 Infection”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5.5 (2021): 108-117.

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