Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 5 - 2021
Vaccine Hesitancy and Barriers to Vaccine Utilization in the Current COVID 19 Pandemic - Canadian Experience: A Narrative Review
Shafi Bhuiyan1,2*, Alexander Olayinka Dare2, Monsura Haque2, Mustapha Abdulhameed2, Najam Ul Saher Faisal2, Nibras Sufeian Aldoori2, Mohammad Hahsim Zamani2 and Housne Begum2,3
1University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
2Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada
3McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada
*Corresponding Author: Shafi Bhuiyan, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.
Received: April 23, 2021; Published: April 30, 2021




Abstract

Rationale: Vaccination is an important public health intervention and basis for the prevention of highly infectious diseases. However, vaccine hesitancy is a growing trend propagated by a variety of factors. More so, the COVID-19 pandemic ranks among the greatest catastrophes in human history, with the increasing tally of deaths and economic devastations. Thus, health experts and policy makers have to work together to develop a vaccination mandate to address the COVID-19 pandemic.

Objective: To evaluate the status and underlying causes of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. This novel coronavirus is deadly and highly contagious; extensive use of preventative measures such as wearing of face masks, social distancing, and eventually, mass vaccination are needed to bring it under control. We would attempt to identify potential reasons for COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and refusal, including possible solutions to eliminate vaccination barriers.

Method: A narrative review was conducted by a broad qualitative synthesis of previously published information. The original research articles were sourced from PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar in November 2020. Since the COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing issue, we extended our search to include grey literature, editorials and expert opinions. A set of keywords which reflected the core concepts were used. Inclusion or exclusion criteria was not set. No time filter was applied. Only articles in English were evaluated.

Results: In Canada, a recent poll taken by 1001 citizens, found that 55% of respondents were more likely to receive a COVID-19 vaccine, 21% would not and 24% of respondents were undecided. This is far below the cut-off in order to achieve considerable herd immunity, as a vaccine with 100% efficacy would require at least 66.10% coverage. Barriers to vaccination include fear of side effects, beliefs concerning the effectiveness of vaccines, distrust of the motives and lack of recognition of the need to be vaccinated.

Conclusion: We explored the history of vaccine hesitancy, its causes by suggesting approaches for reducing vaccine hesitancy and strengthening vaccine acceptance. Sound governmental policies might be key to persuading citizens to vaccinate. Social media, electronic and print media can play a major role in the consistent sensitization on the importance of vaccination for covid-19.

Keywords: Vaccine Hesitancy; Social Media; Barriers; Vaccine Utilization; Vaccine Confidence; COVID 19; Pandemic

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Citation: Shafi Bhuiyan., et al. “Vaccine Hesitancy and Barriers to Vaccine Utilization in the Current COVID 19 Pandemic - Canadian Experience: A Narrative Review”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5.5 (2021): 61-68.

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