Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 3 - 2021
Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Karachi Pakistan
Erum Choudry1*, Syed Uzair Mahmood1, Quratulain Shaikh1, Sheharyar Khan3, Syed Ghazanfar Saleem4, Aisha Yaqub Mulla5, Tariq Aziz4 and Samreen Sarfaraz5
1Indus Hospital Research Center, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Medicine, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan
3Department of Emergency, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
4Department of Dentistry, Karachi Medical and Dental College, Karachi, Pakistan
5Department of Infectious diseases, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Erum Choudry, Indus Hospital Research Center, The Indus Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.
Received: February 12, 2021; Published: February 27, 2021




Abstract

Background: After the outbreak of coronavirus disease in 2019, healthcare workers have encountered an unprecedented level of workload and pressure. In Pakistan, little is known about its mental impact on the health care personnel and perceived stressors. This research aims to explore the psychological impact of COVID-19 on healthcare workers at one of the leading referral centers in Pakistan’s highest COVID-19 burden city, Karachi.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted inviting HCWs including doctors and nurses posted in COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) and emergency department. Mental health was measured on the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS 21). Binary logistic regression was used to model depression against its predictors. Odds ratios and 95% CIs were reported.

Results: A total of 202 HCWs participated in the study. Most were nurses (59%) while physicians were 41%. Among the respondents, 95 (47.3%) had symptoms of depression, 72 (35.8%) had anxiety and 122 (60.7%) had stress. Simple logistic regression revealed that female gender, younger age, nurses, less work experience, long duty hours, direct contact with a COVID-19 positive patient, working in the COVID-19 ICU, having anxiety and stress are associated with depression. Advance logistic regression showed that female gender, being nurse, long duty hours, anxiety and stress were associated with depression.

Conclusion: Although the presence of depression, anxiety and stress is high in doctors and nurses working with COVID-19 patients, certain characteristics associated with mental health problems were brought into the limelight. Emotional and psychological support, incentives to appreciate the work and prompt identification and treatment of any mental health condition may decrease the burden on the HCWs in such public health emergencies.

 

Keywords: COVID-19; Stress; Depression; Mental Health; Healthcare Workers

References

  1. Pneumonia of unknown cause reported to WHO China Office (2020).
  2. Li H., et al. “Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): current status and future perspectives”. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 5 (2020): 105951.
  3. WHO announces COVID-19 outbreak a pandemic (2020).
  4. Li Q., et al. “Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia”. The New England Journal of Medicine 13 (2020): 1199-1207.
  5. Wu Z and McGoogan JM. “Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China: Summary of a Report of 72314 Cases From the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 13 (2020): 1239.
  6. Jiang S., et al. “An emerging coronavirus causing pneumonia outbreak in Wuhan, China: calling for developing therapeutic and prophylactic strategies”. Emerging Microbes and Infections 1 (2020): 275-277.
  7. COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic (2020).
  8. Timeline of the coronavirus pandemic in Pakistan (2020).
  9. Pakistan Overview (2020).
  10. Maunder RG., et al. “Applying the lessons of SARS to pandemic influenza: an evidence-based approach to mitigating the stress experienced by healthcare workers”. Canadian Journal of Public Health 6 (2008): 486-488.
  11. Dai Y., et al. “Psychological impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on healthcare workers in China”. In: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (2020).
  12. Kang L., et al. “The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus”. Lancet Psychiatry3 (2020): e14.
  13. Liu X., et al. “Depression after exposure to stressful events: lessons learned from the severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic”. Comprehensive Psychiatry 1 (2012): 15-23.
  14. Shultz JM., et al. “The 2014 Ebola outbreak and mental health: current status and recommended response”. The Journal of the American Medical Association 6 (2015): 567-568.
  15. Lee SM., et al. “Psychological impact of the 2015 MERS outbreak on hospital workers and quarantined hemodialysis patients”. Comprehensive Psychiatry 87 (2018): 123-127.
  16. Ahmed DT. “JPMC doctor attacked by suspected COVID-19 patient’s family members”. Samma News (2020).
  17. Harris PA., et al. “Research electronic data capture (REDCap)--a metadata-driven methodology and workflow process for providing translational research informatics support”. Journal of Biomedical Informatics2 (2009): 377-381.
  18. Tran TD., et al. “Validation of the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS) 21 as a screening instrument for depression and anxiety in a rural community-based cohort of northern Vietnamese women”. BMC Psychiatry1 (2013): 24.
  19. Lovibond PF and Lovibond SH. “The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories”. Behaviour Research and Therapy3 (1995): 335-343.
  20. Khalid I., et al. “Healthcare Workers Emotions, Perceived Stressors and Coping Strategies During a MERS-CoV Outbreak”. Clinical Medicine and Research 1 (2016): 7-14.
  21. Lai J., et al. “Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019”. JAMA Network Open 3 (2020): e203976.
  22. Elbay RY., et al. “Depression, anxiety, stress levels of physicians and associated factors in Covid-19 pandemics”. Psychiatry Research 290 (2020): 113130.
  23. Wang C., et al. “A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 87 (2020): 40-48.
  24. Chew NWS., et al. “A multinational, multicentre study on the psychological outcomes and associated physical symptoms amongst healthcare workers during COVID-19 outbreak”. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (2020).
  25. Kaveh M., et al. “Anxiety levels among Iranian health care workers during the COVID-19 surge: A cross-sectional study”. In: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (2020).
  26. Huang JZ., et al. “Mental health survey of 230 medical staff in a tertiary infectious disease hospital for COVID-19. 38 (2020): E001-E001.
  27. Tan BYQ., et al. “Psychological Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Workers in Singapore”. Annals of Internal Medicine (2020).
  28. Fawzy M and Hamed SA. “Prevalence of psychological stress, depression and anxiety among medical students in Egypt”. Psychiatry Research 255 (2017): 186-194.
  29. Shaikh Q., et al. “Parenting behaviors, marital discord and the mental health of young females: a cross-sectional study from Saudi Arabia”. Annals of Saudi medicine1 (2020): 49-54.
  30. Khan S and Khan RAJAPMH. “Chronic stress leads to anxiety and depression 5.1 (2017): 1091.
Citation: Erum Choudry., et al. “Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Healthcare Workers in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Karachi Pakistan”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5.3 (2021): 75-84.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


October Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the October issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before November 08, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk