Research Article
Volume 5 Issue 2 - 2021
Pregnant Women with Trichomoniasis in a West African State: A Review
Job Patience Abiye1*, Aaron Umasoye Udogadi2* and Karibo George Furo2
1Medical Microbiology and Parasitology Department, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria
2Medical Microbiology and Parasitology Department, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Job Patience Abiye, Medical Microbiology and Parasitology Department, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Rivers State, Nigeria andAaron Umasoye Udogadi, Medical Microbiology and Parasitology Department, College of Health Sciences, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.
Received: November 08, 2020; Published: January 31, 2021




Abstract

Introduction: Trichomonas vaginalis has been a key common treatable transmitted infection sexually. In spite of the countless severe health implications to include aiding the acquisition and spread of viral infections, PID and serious consequences of pregnancy, it is still under-diagnosed. This review aims to update the reader on the prevalence of T. vaginalis among pregnant women in Nigeria, and to also buttress the risk posed by this infection on pregnancy as well as the symptoms/factors that promote transmission. Methodology: Google search engine was used to access the information on web from 2005 - 2020 and used in this study.

Result: An average national prevalence of 10.4% was observed from this study among pregnant women.

Conclusion: Sexual promiscuity, age and socio-economics, remain valuable indices in understanding the distribution of infection within evaluated data space. Complications such as low-birth weight and premature delivery are prevalent with Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Therefore, it will be important to encourage people not to have more than one sex partner, as well as avoiding unhealthy sex habits. Also, improvement on personal care and hygiene.

Keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis; Prevalence; Pregnant Women; Infection; Nigeria

References

  1. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)”. Morbidity, Mortality Weekly Recommendation Report 5 (2006): 1-94.
  2. Cudmore SL., et al. “Treatment of infectious caused by metronidazole - resistant Trichomonas vaginalis”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews4 (2004): 783-793.
  3. Olusola O., et al. “Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among pregnant women in Abeokuta, Nigeria”. Sieria Leone Journal of Biomedical Research 2 (2010): 2.
  4. Garber GE. “The laboratory diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginals”. The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology. Journal Canadian Des Maladies infectieuses Et De La Microbiologie Medical. AMMI Canada1 (2005): 35-38.
  5. Sobel JD. “What’s new on bacterial vaginosis and trichomoniasis?” Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 192 (2006): 287-406.
  6. Peterson K and Drame D. “Latrogenic transmission of Trichomonas vaginalis by a traditional healer”. Sexually Transmitted Infections 5 (2010): 353-354.
  7. Aaron UU., et al. “Public Health Implications of HIV Incidence in Orashi Communities of Niger Delta, Nigeria”. EPRA International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research4 (2017): 80-87.
  8. World Health Organization (WHO). “Sexually transmitted infection”. WHO medical center (2007).
  9. Webber R. “Communicable Disease Epidemiology and Control (3rd edition)”. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press (2009).
  10. Sutton M., et al. “The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among reproductive age women in the United States - 2004”. Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America10 (2007): 1319-1325.
  11. Smith DA and Ramos N. “Trichomoniasis eMedicine Specialties”. Website: emedicine. Mediscape (2010).
  12. Stood S and Kapil A. “An update on Trichomonas vaginalis”. Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases 29 (2008): 7-14.
  13. Adeoye GO and Akande AH. “Epidemiology of Trichomonas vaginalis among women in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria”. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences10 (2007): 2198-2201.
  14. Usanga V., et al.Trichomonas vaginalis infection among pregnant women in Calabar, Cross Rivers State, Nigeria”. The Internet Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics2 (2009): 101-107.
  15. Aboyeji AP and Nwabuisi C. “Prevalence of Sexually transmitted diseases among pregnant women in Ilorin, Nigeria”. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 23 (2003): 637-639.
  16. Jumbo GTA., et al. “High vaginal and endocervical swabs: A bacteriological study of 8, 4333 samples in Jos, Nigeria”. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science 2 (2006): 41-46.
  17. Uneke CJ., et al.Trichomonas vaginalis infection among pregnant women in South Eastern Nigeria. the public health significance”. The Internet Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics1 (2006): 17-21.
  18. Nwosu MN Mba., et al. “General ulcers and sexual transmitted disease in rural Nigeria”. Journal of Medical Investigation and Practice 2 (2001): 28-33.
  19. Akerele J., et al. “Prevalence of Asymptomatic genital infection among pregnant women in Benin city, Nigeria”. African Journal of Reproductive Health3 (2002): 93-97.
  20. Okpara K., et al. “Risk Factors for Vaginal Trichomonias among women in Uyo. Nigeria”. The Internet Journal of Health 2 (2009): 101-115.
  21. Ochei KC., et al. “Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among pregnant women attending hospital in Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital in Edo State, Nigeria”. IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR - JDMS) 11 (2014): 79-82.
  22. Donbraye E., et al. “Detection and Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis among pregnant women in Ibadan, South Western Nigeria”. World Applied Sciences Journal12 (2010):1512-1517.
  23. Mairiga AG., et al. “Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infections among antenatal clients in Maiduguri, Nigeria”. International Journal of Biological and Medical Research 4 (2011): 998-1002.
  24. Jatau ED., et al. “Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among women attending antenatal clinics in Zaria, Nigeria”. Annals of African Medicine 4 (2006): 178-181.
Citation: Job Patience Abiye., et al. “Pregnant Women with Trichomoniasis in a West African State: A Review”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 5.2 (2021): 65-72.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk