Research Article
Volume 4 Issue 10 - 2020
Echium angustifolium Reduces/Revokes the Effect of Cerastes cerastes Vesnom in Albino Mice
Inass A Sadawe1, Nisreen H Meiqal1, Amira A Gbaj2, Salah M Bensaber1, Abdulathim A A Alshoushan3, Halima A Gbaj1, Jamal A Elbakay1, Massaud Salem Maamar4, Anton Hermann5 and Abdul M Gbaj1*
1Biochemistry Department, School of Pharmacy, Istanbul Medipol University, Turkey
2Novelien School, Tripoli Centre, Tripoli, Libya
3Food and Drug Control Centre (LFDA), Tripoli, Libya
4Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Tripoli University, Libya
5Department of Biosciences, University of Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
*Corresponding Author: Abdul M Gbaj, Professor of Genetics and Biochemistry, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Tripoli, Libya.
Received: September 11, 2020; Published: September 28, 2020


Snakebites are a tremendous challenge in public health owing to their high mortality. Most snake venoms cause powerful local tissue damage leading to transitional or permanent disability of victims. The anti-Cerastes cerastes venom effect of aqueous aerial parts of Echium angustifolium extract was explored using molecular modelling and animal models. The improvement in the mean survival time of albino mice was used to construe the antivenom property of this extract after challenging with LD99 snake venom. Echium angustifolium aqueous extract constituents (pyrrolizidine alkaloids, phenolic acid derivatives and flavonoids) showed van der Waals, hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interactions with an active site of the main constituents of the venom phospholipases A2 enzyme and changes in the fluorescent spectrum of the enzyme. The aqueous extract of Echium angustifolium extract applied intraperitoneally considerably increased the mean survival time but could not protect animals from death when used alone. The lower dose of 0.5 ml Echium angustifolium extract (1.29g/30 ml) showed less protective activity of 8.5 hours in comparison to the higher dose 2.0 ml (1.29g/30 ml) which gave a 13 hour protection time. The anti-snake venom was found to be more efficient than the aqueous aerial parts of Echium angustifolium extract.

Keywords: Cerastes cerastes; Anti-Snake Venom; Aqueous Echium angustifolium; Molecular Modelling/Modelling


  1. Appiah B. “Snakebite neglect rampant in Africa”. Canadian Medical Association Journal 184 (2012): E27-E28.
  2. Harrison RA., et al. “Preclinical antivenom-efficacy testing reveals potentially disturbing deficiencies of snakebite treatment capability in East Africa”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases (2017): 11.
  3. Appiah B. “Snakebite neglect rampant in Africa”. Canadian Medical Association Journal 184 (2012): E27-E28.
  4. Mohamed AH., et al. “Toxic fractions of Cerastes cerastes venom”. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 30 (1977): 205-207.
  5. Siddiqi AR., et al. “Characterization of phospholipase A2 from the venom of Horned viper (Cerastes cerastes)”. FEBS Letters 278 (1991): 14-16.
  6. Gasanov SE., et al. “Phospholipase A2 and cobra venom cytotoxin Vc5 interactions and membrane structure”. General Physiology and Biophysics 14 (1995): 107-123.
  7. Alzahaby M., et al. “Some pharmacological studies on the effects of Cerastes vipera (Sahara sand viper) snake venom”. Toxicon 33 (1995): 1299-1311.
  8. Cavalcante WLG., et al. “Neuromuscular paralysis by the basic phospholipase A2 subunit of crotoxin from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom needs its acid chaperone to concurrently inhibit acetylcholine release and produce muscle blockage”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 334 (2017): 8-17.
  9. Mohamed AH., et al. “Toxic fractions of Cerastes cerastes venom”. Japanese Journal of Medical Science and Biology 30 (1977): 205-207.
  10. Rigoni M., et al. “Snake phospholipase A2 neurotoxins enter neurons, bind specifically to mitochondria, and open their transition pores”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 283 (2008): 34013-34020.
  11. Vulfius CA., et al. “Pancreatic and snake venom presynaptically active phospholipases A2 inhibit nicotinic acetylcholine receptors”. PLoS One 12 (2017): e0186206.
  12. Hamza M., et al. “Cost-Effectiveness of Antivenoms for Snakebite Envenoming in 16 Countries in West Africa”. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 10 (2016): e0004568.
  13. Ahmed SM., et al. “Emergency treatment of a snake bite: Pearls from literature”. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma, and Shock 1 (2008): 97-105.
  14. Mor-Mussery A., et al. “New methodology for quantifying the effects of perennials on their patch productivity in semi-arid environments”. Environmental Management 55 (2015): 1139-1146.
  15. El Rokh AR., et al. “Sucrose diester of aryldihydronaphthalene-type lignans from Echium angustifolium Mill. and their antitumor activity”. Phytochemistry 149 (2018): 155-160.
  16. Silver KS., et al. “Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels as Insecticide Targets”. Advances in Insect Physiology 46 (2014): 389-433.
  17. Dong K., et al. “Molecular Biology of Insect Sodium Channels and Pyrethroid Resistance”. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 50 (2014): 1-17.
  18. Tiwari R., et al. “Carborane clusters in computational drug design: a comparative docking evaluation using AutoDock, FlexX, Glide, and Surflex”. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 49 (2009): 1581-1589.
  19. Markwell MA., et al. “A modification of the Lowry procedure to simplify protein determination in membrane and lipoprotein samples”. Analytical Biochemistry 87 (1978): 206-210.
  20. Holt PA., et al. “Molecular docking of intercalators and groove-binders to nucleic acids using Autodock and Surflex”. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 48 (2008): 1602-1615.
  21. Gilad Y and Senderowitz H. “Docking studies on DNA intercalators”. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 54 (2014): 96-107.
  22. Scott DL., et al. “Interfacial catalysis: the mechanism of phospholipase A2”. Science 250 (1990): 1541-1546.
  23. White SP., et al. “Crystal structure of cobra-venom phospholipase A2 in a complex with a transition-state analogue”. Science 250 (1990): 1560-1563.
  24. Kubitza C., et al. “Crystal structure of pyrrolizidine alkaloid N-oxygenase from the grasshopper Zonocerus variegatus”. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology 74 (2018): 422-432.
  25. Ma J., et al. “Pyrrole-protein adducts - A biomarker of pyrrolizidine alkaloid-induced hepatotoxicity”. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 26 (2018): 965-972.
  26. Suladze S., et al. “Pressure Modulation of the Enzymatic Activity of Phospholipase A2, A Putative Membrane-Associated Pressure Sensor”. Journal of the American Chemical Society137 (2015): 12588-12596.
  27. Godkin JD., et al. “Phospholipase A2 regulation of bovine endometrial (BEND) cell prostaglandin production”. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 6 (2008): 44.
  28. Gelb MH., et al. “Inhibition of phospholipase A2”. The FASEB Journal 8 (1994): 916-924.
  29. Lombardo D and Dennis EA. “Cobra venom phospholipase A2 inhibition by manoalide. A novel type of phospholipase inhibitor”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 260 (1985): 7234-7240.
  30. Dileep KV., et al. “Comparative studies on the inhibitory activities of selected benzoic acid derivatives against secretory phospholipase A2, a key enzyme involved in the inflammatory pathway”. Molecular Omics 11 (2015): 1973-1979.
  31. Yang Y., et al. “Binding research on flavones as ligands of beta-amyloid aggregates by fluorescence and their 3D-QSAR, docking studies”. Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 29 (2010): 538-545.
  32. Sumandea M., et al. “Roles of aromatic residues in high interfacial activity of Naja naja atra phospholipase A2”. Biochemistry 38 (1999): 16290-16297.
  33. Kuipers OP., et al. “Insight into the conformational dynamics of specific regions of porcine pancreatic phospholipase A2 from a time-resolved fluorescence study of a genetically inserted single tryptophan residue”. Biochemistry 30 (1991): 8771-8785.
  34. Yang CC and Chang LS. “Assessment of the role of tryptophan residues in phospholipase A2 by fluorescence quenching”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 11 (1989): 13-16.
  35. Kenoth R., et al. “Structural determination and tryptophan fluorescence of heterokaryon incompatibility C2 protein (HET-C2), a fungal glycolipid transfer protein (GLTP), provide novel insights into glycolipid specificity and membrane interaction by the GLTP fold”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 285 (2010): 13066-13078.
  36. Gorbenko GP., et al. “Binding of lysozyme to phospholipid bilayers: evidence for protein aggregation upon membrane association”. Biophysical Journal 93 (2007): 140-153.
  37. Gong AQ and Zhu XS. “Determination of epristeride by its quenching effect on the fluorescence of L-tryptophan”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis 3 (2013): 415-420.
  38. Peng HL and Callender R. “Mechanism for Fluorescence Quenching of Tryptophan by Oxamate and Pyruvate: Conjugation and Solvation-Induced Photoinduced Electron Transfer”. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 122 (2018): 6483-6490.
  39. Enas A Sadawe., et al. “Olea Europaea Leaves Delay the Onset of Toxicity of Cerastes cerastes Venom in Albino Mice”. Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4 (2019): 1-3.
  40. Valenta J., et al. “Analysis of hemocoagulation tests for prediction of venom-induced consumption coagulopathy development after Viperidae bite”. Bratislavske Lekarske Listy 120 (2019): 566-568.
  41. Crofts SB., et al. “How do morphological sharpness measures relate to puncture performance in viperid snake fangs?” Biology Letters 15 (2019): 20180905.
  42. Esiene A., et al. “Severe Viperidae envenomation complicated by a state of shock, acute kidney injury, and gangrene presenting late at the emergency department: a case report”. BMC Emergency Medicine 19 (2019): 26.
  43. Abdel-Aty AM., et al. “A hemorrhagic metalloprotease of Egyptian Cerastes vipera venom: Biochemical and immunological properties”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 130 (2019): 695-704.
  44. Bittencourt GB., et al. “Photoreceptors morphology and genetics of the visual pigments of Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus (Serpentes, Viperidae)”. Vision Research 158 (2019): 72-77.
  45. Ozverel CS., et al. “Investigating the cytotoxic effects of the venom proteome of two species of the Viperidae family (Cerastes cerastes and Cryptelytrops purpureomaculatus) from various habitats. Comp Biochem”. Physiology Part C Toxicology and Pharmacology 220 (2019): 20-30.
  46. Gomes A., et al. “Herbs and herbal constituents active against snake bite”. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 48 (2010): 865-878.
  47. Penchalapratap G., et al. “Herbal remedies for Snake bites in Ethnic practices of Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh”. Ancient Science of Life 29 (2010): 13-16.
  48. Gupta YK and Peshin SS. “Do herbal medicines have potential for managing snake bite envenomation?” Toxicology International 19 (2012): 89-99.
Citation: Abdul M Gbaj., et al. “Echium angustifolium Reduces/Revokes the Effect of Cerastes cerastes Venom in Albino Mice”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 4.10 (2020): 74-88.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

October Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the October issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before November 08, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to