Research Article
Volume 4 Issue 7 - 2020
High Prevalence of Metal Resistant Proteins in Salmonella enterica Multi Drug Resistant Plasmids Correlates Severe Toxicities in Water with Higher Drug Resistance Typhoid
Asit Kumar Chakraborty* and Asim Kumar Roy
Under Graduate Department of Biotechnology, Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India
*Corresponding Author: Asit Kumar Chakraborty, Under Graduate Department of Biotechnology, Oriental Institute of Science and Technology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India.
Received: April 12, 2020; Published: June 3, 2020




Abstract

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) and drug void have caused huge panic today. Typhoid was a serious old disease and such disease was controlled by antibiotics so far. Recent outbreaks of multi-drug resistant (MDR) salmoniasis caused serious health hazard in human and animal demanding an update on molecular biology of the status on transferable genetic elements. R-plasmids combined in F’-plasmid and the new MDR conjugative plasmids were shown abundant in Salmonella enterica ranging 70 - 440 kb with similarities to Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae plasmids. Tetracycline, Penicillin, Sulpha-drug and Aminoglycoside resistant determinants were abundant in > 50 plasmids analyzed and metal resistant gene clusters are predominant in most large plasmids. Among the β-lactamases, blaTEM was predominant including few blaOXA, blaNDM, blaAmpC and blaCTX-M whereas blaKPC was not detected. Among the acetyltransferase all catA1, aacA1 and aac-1b-cr genes were located in association with abundant streptomycin phosphotransferases (strAB) and rarely mcr-5/9 phosphoethanolamine-lipid A transferase. Altered isomeric dihydropteroate synthase (Sul1/2/3) were present giving sulfamethoxazole resistance and dhfr gene frequently associated giving trimethoprim resistance. Metal resistant gene clusters like SilABC (CusABC), PcoAB, RcnA, terABC and MerABCXT etc. were found in many Salmonella enterica plasmids. Toxin genes like HipA and virulence genes like spvABD were located increasing virulence and pathogenesis. Drug efflux genes like tetA or tetB or both was abundant and OqxB, floR, CmlA were frequent but QepA and EamA were rarely seen. Thus, Salmonella metal resistant genes combined complex antibiotic resistant genes to combat toxicities in the gut to develop so many MDR conjugative plasmids causing AMR. Such acquisition spreads salmoniasis in the live stocks (pig, cow, chicken) where toxic soil and water dominate increasing chance of MDR typhoid in human. Analysis confirmed the mutations of the metal resistant genes as observed for thousand isomers of mdr genes increasing PAN drug resistant microbes.

Keywords: MDR Typhoid; Metal Resistant Genes; Water Toxicity; Gut Microbiome

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Citation: Asit Kumar Chakraborty and Asim Kumar Roy. “High Prevalence of Metal Resistant Proteins in Salmonella enterica Multi Drug Resistant Plasmids Correlates Severe Toxicities in Water with Higher Drug Resistance Typhoid”. EC Emergency Medicine and Critical Care 4.7(2020): 08-23.

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