Research Article
Volume 6 Issue 1 - 2022
Reproductive Hormone Abnormalities in Married Women of Child Bearing Ages Evaluated for Infertility in the Commercial City of Aba, Southeast Nigeria
Nkpozi MO1*, Kamanu CO2, Kamanu Chuks2and Ohiri JU3
1Department of Internal Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, ABSUTH, Aba, Nigeria
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ABSUTH, Aba, Nigeria
3Department of Chemical Pathology, Federal Medical Centre, FMC, Owerri, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Nkpozi MO, Consultant Physician/Endocrinologist, Department of Internal Medicine, Abia State University Teaching Hospital, ABSUTH, Aba, Nigeria.
Received: July 03, 2022; Published: July 25, 2022


Hormonal abnormalities, leading to disorders of ovulation, are recognized female risk factors in couple infertility. Other female causes of infertility include endometriosis, tubal diseases and unexplained causes which may occur singly or in combination. Because of the psychosocial importance attached to reproduction in the society, infertile couples usually present to fertility clinics for evaluation and treatment. The extent of reproductive hormonal abnormalities in married women of child bearing ages seeking fertility solutions in Aba, Southeast Nigeria is not known. This study, therefore, set out to bridge this gap in knowledge. This was a cross- sectional study in which 170 female patients presenting to the Fertility Clinic of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O and G), Abia State University Teaching Hospital (ABSUTH), Aba for evaluation and treatment were consecutively recruited. This study lasted from January 1, 2021 to September 30, 2021. Relevant data obtained were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.0 software. A total of 170 women who met the inclusion criteria for the study were recruited among which 91.8% had abnormal reproductive hormonal profile. The commonest reproductive hormonal abnormalities noted were low progesterone levels, hyperprolactinaemia, high follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in 54.1%, 42.4%, 20.6% and 18.2% of the study participants respectively. Hyperprolactinaemia was not significantly related to age of the subjects. It is recommended that infertile women who do not have structural causes of female infertility be promptly evaluated for hormonal abnormalities and treated accordingly.

Keywords: Aba; Female Reproductive Hormones; Female Infertility; Hyperprolactinaemia; Low Progesterone Levels; Southeast Nigeria


  1. Mitchell P Rosen and Marcelle I Cedars. “Female reproductive endocrinology and infertility”. In: Greenspan FS, Gardner DG, editors. Basic and Clinical Endocrinology, 9th New York: McGraw Hill (2007): 461-464.
  2. Elhussein OG., et al. “Epidemiology of infertility and characteristics of infertile couple requesting assisted reproduction in a low resource setting in Africa, Sudan”. Fertility Research and Practice7 (2019).
  3. Robert L Barbieri. In: Yen and Jaffe's Reproductive Endocrinology Physiology, Pathology and Clinical Management, 8th edition (2019).
  4. Dunson DB., et al. “Increased infertility with age in men and women”. Obstetrics and Gynecology 103 (2004): 51-56.
  5. Gnoth CD., et al. “Time to pregnancy: Results of the German Prospective study and impact on the management of infertility”. Human Reproduction 18 (2003): 1959-1966.
  6. EI Ekpe., et al. “Pattern of hormonal imbalance among women of child bearing age in a tertiary health care centre in Southern Nigeria”. Indian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology Research 13 (2020): 20-24.
  7. Digban KA., et al. “Hormonal profile of some infertile women in Bida, Nigeria”. Libyan Journal of Medical Sciences 2 (2018): 26-28.
  8. Onyenekwe CC., et al. “Abnormal reproductive hormone profiles amongst infertile married women attending a fertility support laboratory”. Journal of Biomedical Investigation1 (2005): 26-30.
  9. Emokpae MA., et al. “Female infertility of endocrine origin in Warri, Delta state, Nigeria”. The Nigerian Health Journal2 (2018): 72-80.
  10. Bamgboye EA. “Lecture Notes on Research Methodology in the Health and Medical Sciences”. 2nd Ibadan: Folbam (2013): 74-76.
Citation: Nkpozi MO., et al. “Reproductive Hormone Abnormalities in Married Women of Child Bearing Ages Evaluated for Infertility in the Commercial City of Aba, Southeast Nigeria”. EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 6.1 (2022): 33-37.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 21, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.