Review Article
Volume 5 Issue 2 - 2021
The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Childhood Obesity: A Review
Aminah Adil AL-Sulaiman1*, Gofran Mohammed A Kwas2, Fatimah Abdulrazaq Al Zaher3, Abdulelah Anwar Bawazier4, Mariam Saad AlOsaimi5, Rawabi Hamad Algomaishy5, Faisal Naif R Alruwaili6, Nujud Abdulqader Albalawi6 and Amani Shabab Alotaibi7
1Dammam Primary Healthcare Centers, Saudi Arabia
2Medical University of Silesia, Poland
3Jazan University, Saudi Arabia
4King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia
6University of Tabuk , Saudi Arabia
7College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Aminah Adil AL-Sulaiman, Family Medicine Consultant, Dammam Primary Healthcare Centers, Saudi Arabia.
Received: January 11, 2021; Published: January 21, 2021


In the recent past, the public health sector has experienced a spike in the number of individuals affected by obesity and overweight, leading to a global pandemic. According to the World Health Organization, in 2016, approximately 1.9 billion adults were overweight, with 13% being children. Obesity is linked to the development of a range of chronic illnesses and is currently the leading cause of death. Childhood obesity has also been on the rise and has achieved pandemic levels on a global scale. Obesity in childhood has detrimental effects and a significant impact on the affected individuals' psychological and physical health. The development of obesity is a concept that is not fully understood in terms of its development, and it is linked to various causes and has profound consequences on affected children. The Covid-19 pandemic is another issue that has an impact on childhood obesity which affects the health and well-being of children. COVID-19 has led to lifestyle changes that expose children to obesity risks. This article addresses the causes and consequences of paediatric obesity and describes the impact of COVID-19 on its prevalence and health risks.

 Keywords: Paediatric Obesity; Childhood Obesity; Obesity; Prevalence of Obesity; Obesity and COVID-19


    1. Sahoo K., et al. “Childhood obesity: causes and consequences”. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 4.2 (2015): 187.
    2. Karnik S and Kanekar A. “Childhood obesity: a global public health crisis”. International Journal of Preventive Medicine 1 (2012): 1-7.
    3. World Health Organization (WHO). Obesity and Overweight (2020).
    4. Wang Y., et al. “Childhood obesity prevention programs: comparative effectiveness review and meta-analysis. In Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews”. Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (UK) (2013).
    5. Bleich SN., et al. “Systematic review of community-based childhood obesity prevention studies”. Pediatrics1 (2013): e201-e210.
    6. Clemmensen C., et al. “Will the COVID-19 pandemic worsen the obesity epidemic?” Nature Reviews Endocrinology 9 (2020): 469-470.
    7. Workman J. “How Much May COVID‐19 School Closures Increase Childhood Obesity?” Obesity10 (2020): 1787-1787.
    8. Freemark M. “Determinants of risk for childhood obesity”. The New England Journal of Medicine 379 (2018): 1371-1372.
    9. Albataineh SR., et al. “Overweight and obesity in childhood: Dietary, biochemical, inflammatory and lifestyle risk factors”. Obesity Medicine 15 (2019): 100112.
    10. Calcaterra V., et al. “Inflammation in Obesity-Related Complications in Children: The Protective Effect of Diet and Its Potential Role as a Therapeutic Agent”. Biomolecules9 (2020): 1324.
    11. Tambalis KD., et al. “Insufficient sleep duration is associated with dietary habits, screen time, and obesity in children”. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine10 (2018): 1689-1696.
    12. Sagar R. “Psychological aspects of obesity in children and adolescents”. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics7 (2018): 554-559.
    13. Stipančić G and Šepec MP. “Secondary causes of obesity in children and adolescents”. Central European Journal of Paediatrics 14 (2018): 1.
    14. Bhasin P. “An Assessment of Health-Economic Burden of Obesity Trends with Population-Based Preventive Strategies in a Developed Economy”. International Journal of Public Health2 (2017): 126-135.
    15. Chu DT., et al. “An update on physical health and economic consequences of overweight and obesity”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews 6 (2018): 1095-1100.
    16. Zacks B., et al. “Delayed motor skills associated with pediatric obesity”. Obesity Research and Clinical Practice (2020).
    17. Greydanus DE., et al. “Pediatric obesity: Current concepts”. Disease-a-Month 4 (2018): 98-156.
    18. Vranić L., et al. “Vitamin D Deficiency: consequence or cause of obesity?” Medicine9 (2019): 541.
    19. Vas P., et al. “Diabetes, obesity and COVID‐19: a complex interplay”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism10 (2020): 1892-1896.
    20. Kumar S and Kelly AS. “Review of childhood obesity: from epidemiology, etiology, and comorbidities to clinical assessment and treatment”. In Mayo Clinic Proceedings2 (2017): 251-265.
    21. Bintalib Y., et al. “Perception of parents about their children’s obesity complication in Jeddah”. Saudi Arabia (2020).
    22. Górnicka M., et al. “Dietary and lifestyle changes during COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdowns among Polish adults: A Cross-sectional online survey PLifeCOVID-19 study”. Nutrients 8 (2020): 2324.
    23. Browne NT., et al. “When pandemics collide: The impact of COVID-19 on childhood obesity”. Journal of Pediatric Nursing (2020).
    24. Krebs NF., et al. “Assessment of child and adolescent overweight and obesity”. Pediatrics4 (2007): S193-S228.
    25. Luzi L and Radaelli MG. “Influenza and obesity: its odd relationship and the lessons for COVID-19 pandemic”. Acta Diabetologica (2020): 1-6.
    26. Rychter AM., et al. “Should patients with obesity be more afraid of COVID‐19?” Obesity Reviews9 (2020): e13083.
    27. Pietrobelli A., et al. “Effects of COVID‐19 lockdown on lifestyle behaviors in children with obesity living in Verona, Italy: a longitudinal study”. Obesity (2020).
    28. Alberca RW., et al. “Obesity as a risk factor for COVID-19: an overview”. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition (2020): 1-15.
    29. McDowell T. “Childhood Obesity Is Rising 'Shockingly Fast' - Even In Poor Countries (2019).
    30. “Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States (2018).
    31. Lakshman R., et al. “Childhood obesity”. Circulation14 (2012): 1770-1779.
    32. Zanganeh M. “Explore and develop methods for the economic evaluation of school-based interventions to prevent childhood obesity in low and middle income countries (Doctoral dissertation, University of Birmingham) (2020).
Citation: Aminah Adil AL-Sulaiman., et al. “The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Childhood Obesity: A Review”. EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 5.2 (2021): 15-21.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 14, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.