Mini Review
Volume 4 Issue 11 - 2020
Recent Advances in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Sumesh Raj* and Sunil Prasobh
Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, Sree Gokulam Medical College, Trivandrum, India
*Corresponding Author: Sumesh Raj, Associate Professor of Internal Medicine, Sree Gokulam Medical College, Trivandrum, India.
Received: August 25, 2020; Published: October 31, 2020


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by insulin resistance or insulin deficiency. There are so many challenges in the management of diabetes. This paper aims to review the available current evidences regarding the recent advances in the management of diabetes. Continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) and Ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) are now used for monitoring of blood glucose. New Oral antidiabetic drugs like gliptins, sodium glucose transporter2 inhibitors (SGLT 2 I) and injectables like Glucagon like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP 1RA), newer insulin analogues, now plays an important role in the present day management of diabetes. Along with this, many other exciting drugs are in the pipeline.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Antidiabetic Drugs; Insulin Analogues


  1. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas, 8th Brussels, Belgium (2017).
  2. UK Prospective diabetes study (UKPDS) Group. “Intensive blood glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33)”. Lancet 352 (1998): 837-853.
  3. IrI B. “Should minimal glucose variability become the gold standard of glycemic control?” Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 9 (2005): 178-181.
  4. Hirsch IB. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 5 (2008): 750-783.
  5. Mazze RS. “Making sense of glucose monitoring technologies from SMBG to CGM”. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 5 (2005): 784-787.
  6. Inzucchi SE., et al. “Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 diabetes.2015; A Patient centered Approach; Update to a Position statement of the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the study of Diabetes”. Diabetes Care1 (2015): 140-149.
  7. Green JB., et al. “TECOS Study Group Effect of Sitagliptin on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes”. The New England Journal of Medicine 373 (2015): 232-242.
  8. Trujillo J M., et al. “GLP-1 receptor agonists; review of head to head clinical studies”. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism 6 (2015): 19-28.
  9. Whalen K., et al. “The role of Sodium glucose co transporter 2 inhibition in the treatment of type 2 diabetes”. Clinical Therapeutics 37 (2015): 1150-1166.
  10. Zinman B., et al. “Empagliflozin, Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in Type 2 Diabetes”. New England Journal of Medicine22 (2015): 2117-2128.
  11. Chao EC., et al. “SGLT2 inhibition--a novel strategy for diabetes treatment”. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 7 (2010): 551-559.
  12. Anastassios G PAittas., et al. “Efficacy, safety and patient acceptability of Technosphere inhaled insulin for people with diabetes; a systematic review and metaanalysis”. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinology11 (2015): 886-894.
  13. Ie Roux CW., et al. “Gut hormone profiles following bariatric surgery favour an anorectic state,facilitate weight loss, and improve metabolic parameters”. Annals of Surgery 1 (2006): 108-114.
  14. Shah S., et al. “Prospective controlled study of effect of laproscopic sleeve gastrectomy on small bowel transit time and gastric emptying half time in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases 2 (2010): 152-157.
  15. Ming CS and Chen Z-HK. “Progress in pancreas transplantation and combined pancreas –kidney transplantation”. HBPD INT1 (2007): 17-23.
  16. Vaithilingam V and Tuch BE. “Is let transplantation and encapsulation; an update on recent developments”. The Review of Diabetic Studies 1 (2011): 51-67.
  17. Quang T Nguyen DO., et al. “Current Therapies and Emerging Drugs in the Pipeline for Type 2 Diabetes”. American Health and Drug Benefits5 (2011): 303-311.
  18. Ralph A DeFronzo., et al. “Novel Agents for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes”. Diabetes Spectrum2 (2014): 100-112.
  19. Johnny Ludvigsson., et al. “GAD 65 Antigen therapy in Recently Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus”. The New England Journal of Medicine 366 (2012): 433-442.
  20. Kevan C Herold., et al. “Anti CD3 monoclonal antibodies in new onset Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus”. The New England Journal of Medicine 346 (2002): 1692-1698.
Citation: Sumesh Raj and Sunil Prasobh. “Recent Advances in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus”. EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.11 (2020): 41-46.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.