Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 10 - 2020
SGLT 2 Inhibitors: Review of Systemic Effects and Safety
Amin Ibrahim*
Medical Officer, Ayodele Medical Center, Iju, Lagos, Nigeria
*Corresponding Author: Amin Ibrahim, Medical Officer, Ayodele Medical Center, Iju, Lagos, Nigeria.
Received: May 06, 2020; Published: September 20, 2020


Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new group of drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. They act by inhibiting SGLT2 located in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of the kidney and prevent the reabsorption of filtered glucose into the blood stream. They are effective in lowering blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) when used as monotherapy or add on to other oral antidiabetic agents. SGLT2 inhibitors effectively reduced mortality and duration of hospitalization in diabetic patients with cardiovascular diseases in both the CANVAS and EMPA REG OUTCOME trials. A reduced requirement for renal replacement therapy and improved kidney function were also observed. Other systemic effects of these drugs include weight reduction, increased haematocrit and reduced hepatic fat deposition. The safety profile of SGLT2 inhibitors is generally encouraging but the observation of increased amputation risk in patients treated with the drugs has raised a major concern. In addition, euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis, bone demineralization and fracture, electrolyte imbalance and acute kidney injury are important safety issues being evaluated in therapy with the drugs. Hypoglycemia is not a common side effect but can occur when used in conjunction with other antidiabetic medications. Nevertheless, they are very well tolerated in the vast majority of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients.

Keywords: Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 (SGLT2); Proximal Convoluted Tubule (PCT); Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM)


  1. Celine Foote., et al. “Effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes”. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research2 (2019): 117-123.
  2. Chang-Ik Choi. “Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors from Natural Products: Discovery of Next-Generation Antihyperglycemic Agents”. Molecules9 (2016): 1136.
  3. Marianna Karamanou., et al. “Milestones in the history of diabetes mellitus: The main contributors”. World Journal of Diabetes 1 (2016): 1-7.
  4. Chasis H., et al. “The action of phlorizin on the excretion of glucose, xylose, sucrose, creatinine and urea by man”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 12 (1933): 1083-1090.
  5. Katsuno K., et al. “Sergliflozin, a novel selective inhibitor of low-affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) validates the critical role of SGLT2 in renal glucose reabsorption and modulates plasma glucose level”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 320 (2007): 323-330.
  6. Fujimori Y., et al. “Remogliflozin etabonate, in a novel category of selective low-affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) inhibitors, exhibits antidiabetic efficacy in rodent models”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 327 (2008): 268-276.
  7. European Medicines Agency Assessment report, Forxiga (dapagliflozin) (2012).
  8. Sheila Sarnoski-Brocavich and Olga Hilas. “Canagliflozin (Invokana), a Novel Oral Agent for Type 2 Diabetes”. Pharmacy and Therapeutics11 (2013): 656-660.
  9. Leszek Szablewski. “Distribution of glucose transporters in renal diseases”. Journal of Biomedical Sciences 24 (2017): 64.
  10. Amanda Mather and Carol Pollock. “Glucose handling by the kidney”. Kidney International120 (2011): S1-S6.
  11. Juan F Mosley II., et al. “Sodium-Glucose Linked Transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors in the Management of Type-2 Diabetes: A Drug Class Overview”. Pharmacy and Therapeutics7 (2015): 451-462.
  12. Sanjay Kalra. “Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: A Review of Their Basic and Clinical Pharmacology”. Diabetes Therapy2 (2014): 355-366.
  13. Harold Bays. “Sodium Glucose Co-Transporter Type 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Targeting the Kidney to Improve Glycemic Control in Diabetes Mellitus”. Diabetes Therapy2 (2013): 195-220.
  14. René Santer and Joaquim Calado. “Familial Renal Glucosuria and SGLT2: From a Mendelian Trait to a Therapeutic Target”. Clinical Journal of American Society of Nephrology1 (2010): 133-141.
  15. Wright EM., et al. “Biology of human sodium glucose transporters”. Physiological Reviews 2 (2011): 733-794.
  16. Freitas HS., et al. “Na+-glucose transporter-2 messenger ribonucleic acid expression in kidney of diabetic rats’ correlates with glycemic levels: involvement of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1 alpha expression and activity”. Endocrinology2 (2008): 717-724.
  17. Oemar BS., et al. “Complete absence of tubular glucose reabsorption: a new type of renal glucosuria (type 0)”. Clinical Nephrology 3 (1987): 156-160.
  18. Hideaki Kaneto., et al. “Beneficial effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors for preservation of pancreatic β-cell function and reduction of insulin resistance”. Journal of Diabetes 9 (2017): 219-225.
  19. Kelly MS., et al. “Efficacy and renal outcomes of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease”. Postgraduate Medical Journal 17 (2018): 1-12.
  20. Emily Goodchild And Tahseen A Chowdhury. “Managing diabetes in the presence of renal impairment. Diabetes and CKD. Prescribing In Practice”. Prescriber (2017): 24-30.
  21. Mohammad Adil., et al. “Effect of anti-diabetic drugs on bone metabolism: Evidence from preclinical and clinical studies”. Pharmacological Reports 6 (2017): 1328-1340.
  22. Ryuichi Ohgaki., et al. “Interaction of the Sodium/Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT) 2 Inhibitor Canagliflozin with SGLT1 and SGLT2: Inhibition Kinetics, Sidedness of Action, and Transporter-Associated Incorporation Accounting for its Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Features”. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1 (2016): 94-102.
  23. André J Scheen. “Evaluating SGLT2 inhibitors for type 2 diabetes: pharmacokinetic and toxicological considerations”. Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism and Toxicology 5 (2014): 647-663.
  24. Sunder Mudaliar., et al. “Changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor dapagliflozin”. Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics 16 (2014): 137-144.
  25. Stenlof K., et al. “Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin monotherapy in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with diet and exercise”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 15 (2013): 378-382.
  26. Forst T., et al. “Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin over 52 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes on background metformin and pioglitazone”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 16 (2014): 467-477.
  27. Ferrannini E., et al. “Dapagliflozin monotherapy in T2DM patients with inadequate glycemic control by diet and exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter phase III trial”. Diabetes Care 33 (2010): 2217-2224.
  28. Bailey CJ., et al. “Effect of dapagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes who have inadequate glycaemic control with metformin: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”. Lancet 375 (2010): 2223-2233.
  29. Cefalu W., et al. “Efficacy and safety of canagliflozin versus glimepiride in patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled with metformin (CANTATA-SU): 52-week results from a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 non-inferiority trial”. Lancet 382 (2013): 941-950.
  30. Colleen Majewski and George L Bakris. “Blood Pressure Reduction: An Added Benefit of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes”. Diabetes Care 3 (2015): 429-430.
  31. James W Reed. “Impact of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors on blood pressure”. Vascular Health Risk Management 12 (2016): 393-405.
  32. Subodh Verma John JV McMurray. “SGLT2 inhibitors and mechanisms of cardiovascular benefit: a state-of-the-art review”. Diabetologia10 (2018): 2108-2117.
  33. Tricia Santos Cavaiola and Jeremy Pettus. “Cardiovascular effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors”. Diabetes Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity, Target and therapy 11 (2018): 133-148.
  34. Tikkanen I., et al. “EMPA-REG BP Investigators. Empagliflozin reduces blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes and hypertension”. Diabetes Care3 (2015): 420-428.
  35. Abdullah Kaplan., et al. “Direct cardiovascular impact of SGLT2inhibitors: mechanisms and effects”. Heart Failure Reviews7 (2018).
  36. Lambers Heerspink HJ., et al. “Dapagliflozin a glucose-regulating drug with diuretic properties in subjects with type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 9 (2013): 853-862.
  37. Bart Staels. “Cardiovascular Protection by Sodium Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: Potential Mechanisms”. The American Journal of Medicine6 (2017): S30-S39.
  38. Stanley WC., et al. “Myocardial substrate metabolism in the normal and failing heart”. Physiology Review 85 (2005): 1093-1129.
  39. Edoardo Bertero., et al. “Cardiac effects of SGLT2 inhibitors: the sodium hypothesis”. Cardiovascular Research 1 (2018): 12-18.
  40. Lopaschuk GD., et al. “Regulation of fatty acid oxidation in the mammalian heart in health and disease”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1213 (1994): 263-276.
  41. P Elliott., et al. “Classification of the cardiomyopathies: a position statement from the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Myocardial and Pericardial Diseases”. European Heart Journal 29 (2008): 270-276.
  42. S Mudaliar., et al. “Can a shift in fuel energetics explain the beneficial cardiorenal outcomes in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME study? A unifying hypothesis”. Diabetes Care 39 (2016): 1115-1122.
  43. E Ferrannini., et al. “CV protection in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial: a “thrifty substrate” hypothesis”. Diabetes Care 39 (2016): 1108-1114.
  44. Bayeva M., et al. “Taking diabetes to heart: deregulation of myocardial lipid metabolism in diabetic cardiomyopathy”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2 (2013): e000433.
  45. Shimazu T., et al. “Suppression of oxidative stress by beta-hydroxybutyrate, an endogenous histone deacetylase inhibitor”. Science 339 (2013): 211-214.
  46. Shattock MJ., et al. “Na+/Ca2+ exchange and Na+ /K+-ATPase in the heart”. The Journal of Physiology 6 (2015): 1361-1382.
  47. Lambert R., et al. “Intracellular Na+ concentration ([Na+]i) is elevated in diabetic hearts due to enhanced Na+-glucose cotransport”. Journal of the American Heart Association 9 (2015): e002183.
  48. Baartscheer A., et al. “Empagliflozin decreases myocardial cytoplasmic Na+ through inhibition of the cardiac Na+/H+ exchanger in rats and rabbits”. Diabetologia 60 (2017): 568-573.
  49. Lee TM., et al. “Dapagliflozin, a selective SGLT2 inhibitor, attenuated cardiac fibrosis by regulating the macrophage polarization via STAT3 signaling in infarcted rat hearts”. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 104 (2017): 298-310.
  50. Kang S., et al. “Direct effects of empagliflozin on extracellular matrix remodeling in human cardiac fibroblasts: novel translational clues to EMPA-REG Outcome”. The Canadian Journal of Cardiology 33 (2017): S169.
  51. Timothy Garvey W., et al. “Effects of canagliflozin versus glimepiride on adipokines and inflammatory biomarkers in type 2 diabetes”. Metabolism (2018).
  52. Bernard Zinman., et al. “Empagliflozin cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in type 2 diabetes”. New England Journal of Medicine 373 (2015): 2117-2128.
  53. B Haas., et al. “Efficacy, safety and regulatory status of SGLT2 inhibitors: focus on canagliflozin”. Nutrition and Diabetes 4 (2014): e143.
  54. Bruce Neal., et al. “Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes”. New England Journal of Medicine 377 (2017): 644-657.
  55. Jurgen Schnermann and Josephine P Briggs. “Tubuloglomerular Feedback - Mechanistic Insights from Gene-Manipulated Mice”. Kidney International 4 (2008): 418-426.
  56. Osswald H., et al. “Adenosine and tubuloglomerular feedback”. Blood Purification 4-6 (1997): 243-252.
  57. Barajas L. “Anatomy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus”. American Journal of Physiology5 (1979): F333-F343.
  58. Ito S and Abe K. “Tubuloglomerular Feedback”. Japanese Heart Journal2 (1996): 153-163.
  59. Goligorsky MS., et al. “Role of mesangial cells in macula densa to afferent arteriole information transfer”. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology7 (1997): 527-531.
  60. Vasileios Andrianesis., et al. “The renal effects of SGLT2 inhibitors and a mini-review of the literature”. Therapeutic Advances in Endocrinology and Metabolism5-6 (2016): 212-228.
  61. Paola Fioretto., et al. “SGLT2 Inhibitors and the Diabetic Kidney”. Diabetes Care2 (2016): S165-S171.
  62. Tanuj Chawla., et al. “Role of the renin angiotensin system in diabetic nephropathy”. World Journal of Diabetes5 (2010): 141-145.
  63. Luz Lozano-Maneiro and Adriana Puente-García. “Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockade in Diabetic Nephropathy. Present Evidences”. Journal of Clinical Medicine11 (2015): 1908-1937.
  64. Ichiro Mori And Tatsuo Ishizuka. “Effects of SGLT2 Inhibitors on Renin-Aldosterone System for One Month and Six Months in Type 2 Diabetes”. Diabetes1 (2018).
  65. David ZI Cherney., et al. “Sodium glucose cotransport-2 inhibition and intrarenal RAS activity in people with type 1 diabetes”. Kidney International5 (2014): 1057-1058.
  66. Saad Saffo and Taddei. “SGLT2 inhibitors and cirrhosis: A unique perspective on the co-management of diabetes mellitus and ascites”. Clinical Liver Disease6 (2018): 141-144.
  67. Vallon V. “The mechanisms and therapeutic potential of SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetes mellitus”. Annual Review of Medicine 66 (2015): 255-270.
  68. Honghong Zou., et al. “SGLT2 inhibitors: a novel choice for the combination therapy in diabetic kidney disease”. Cardiovascular Diabetology 16 (2017): 65.
  69. Ali F Abdel-Wahab., et al. “Renal protective effect of SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin alone and in combination with irbesartan in a rat model of diabetic nephropathy”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 103 (2018): 59-66.
  70. Kelly MS., et al. “Efficacy and renal outcomes of SGLT2 inhibitors in patients with type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease”. Postgraduate Medicine1 (2019): 31-42.
  71. Christoph Wanner., et al. “Empagliflozin and Progression of Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetes”. New England Journal of Medicine 375 (2016): 323-334.
  72. Giulia Ferrannini., et al. “Energy Balance After Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibition”. Diabetes Care9 (2015): 1730-1735.
  73. Liang Xu., et al. “SGLT2 Inhibition by Empagliflozin Promotes Fat Utilization and Browning and Attenuates Inflammation and Insulin Resistance by Polarizing M2 Macrophages in Diet-induced Obese Mice”. EBio Medicine 20 (2017): 137-149.
  74. Chikara Komiya., et al. “Ipragliflozin Improves Hepatic Steatosis in Obese Mice and Liver Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Patients Irrespective of Body Weight Reduction”. PLoS One3 (2016): e0151511.
  75. Hiroshi Tobita., et al. “Effects of Dapagliflozin on Body Composition and Liver Tests in Patients with Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Prospective, Open-label, Uncontrolled Study”. Current Therapeutic Research, Clinical Experiment 87 (2017): 13-19.
  76. Mohammad Shafi Kuchay., et al. “Effect of Empagliflozin on Liver Fat in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial (E-LIFT Trial)”. Diabetes Care8 (2018): 1801-1808.
  77. Shimizu M., et al. “Evaluation of the effects of dapagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis using transient elastography in patients with type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease”. Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism2 (2019): 285-292.
  78. Motoaki Sano., et al. “Increased Hematocrit During Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor Therapy Indicates Recovery of Tubulointerstitial Function in Diabetic Kidneys”. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research12 (2016): 844-847.
  79. Samuel N Heyman., et al. “Increased Hematocrit During Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitor Therapy”. Journal of Clinical Medicine Research2 (2017): 176-177.
  80. US Food and Drug Administration. “Sodium Glucose Transporter 2 inhibitors, Postmarket drug safety information for patients and providers (2019).
  81. Kohler S., et al. “Safety and tolerability of empagliflozin in patients with type 2 diabetes: pooled analysis of phase I-III clinical trials”. Advances in Therapy 34 (2017): 1707-1726.
  82. Silvio E Inzucchi., et al. “Empagliflozin and Assessment of Lower-Limb Amputations in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Trial”. Diabetes Care1 (2018): e4-e5.
  83. Ryan PB., et al. “Comparative effectiveness of canagliflozin, SGLT2 inhibitors and non-SGLT2 inhibitors on the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A real-world meta-analysis of 4 observational databases (OBSERVE-4D)”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 11 (2018): 2585-2597.
  84. US Food and Drug Administration. “Interim clinical trial results find increased risk of leg and foot amputations, mostly affecting the toes, with the diabetes medicine canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet); FDA to investigate”. Drug Safety Communications.
  85. Gadzhanova S., et al. “Use of SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes and risk of infection: Analysis using general practice records from the NPS MedicineWise Medicine Insight program”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 130 (2017): 180-185.
  86. Puckrin R., et al. “SGLT-2 inhibitors and the risk of infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Acta Diabetological5 (2018): 503-514.
  87. Suzanne Geerlings., et al. “Genital and urinary tract infections in diabetes: Impact of pharmacologically-induced glucosuria”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice3 (2014): 373-381.
  88. Jennifer R Donnan., et al. “Dose response of sodium glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in relation to urinary tract infections: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. CMAJ Open4 (2018): E594-E602.
  89. S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA warns about rare occurrences of a serious infection of the genital area with SGLT2 inhibitors for diabetes”. Drug Safety and Availability (2018).
  90. Julio Rosenstock and Ele Ferrannini. “Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Predictable, Detectable, and Preventable Safety Concern with SGLT2 Inhibitors”. Diabetes Care9 (2015): 1638-1642.
  91. E Ferrannini., et al. “Metabolic response to sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition in type 2 diabetic patients”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 124 (2014): 499-508.
  92. S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA revises label of diabetes drug canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet) to include updates on bone fracture risk and new information on decreased bone mineral density”. Drug Safety and Availability (2015).
  93. Jenny E Blau., et al. “Canagliflozin triggers the FGF23/1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D/PTH axis in healthy volunteers in a randomized crossover study”. JCI Insight8 (2018): e99123.
  94. S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA strengthens kidney warnings for diabetes medicines canagliflozin (Invokana, Invokamet) and dapagliflozin (Farxiga, Xigduo XR). Drug Safety and Availability (2016).
  95. Daniel S Hsia., et al. “An Update on SGLT2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus”. Current Opinion in Endocrinology Diabetes and Obesity1 (2017): 73-79.
  96. Desouza CV., et al. “Cardiometabolic Effects of a New Class of Antidiabetic Agents”. Clinical Therapeutics6 (2015): 1178-1194.
  97. Muhammad Abdul-Ghani., et al. “SGLT2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Risk: Lessons Learned from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME Study”. Diabetes Care5 (2016): 717-725.
  98. L Zanoli., et al. “Sodium-Glucose Linked Transporter-2 Inhibitors in Chronic Kidney Disease”. The Scientific World Journal (2015).
  99. Yshai Yavin., et al. “Effect of the SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin on Potassium Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Pooled Analysis”. Diabetes Therapy 1 (2016): 125-137.
  100. Kaku Tsuruzoe., et al. “A Case of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus with Severe Hyperkalemia Following Administration of a SGLT2 Inhibitor”. Journal of Japanese Diabetes Society J Stage11 (2014): 837-842.
  101. Hao-Wen Lin and Chin-Hsiao Tseng. “A Review on the Relationship between SGLT2 Inhibitors and Cancer”. International Journal of Endocrinology (2014): 719578.
  102. Filippas-Ntekouan S., et al. “SGLT2 inhibitors: are they safe?” Postgraduate Medical Journal 1 (2018): 72-82.
  103. Toshiyuki Sakaeda., et al. “Susceptibility to serious skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders and skin tissue distribution of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors”. International Journal of Medical Sciences9 (2018): 937-943.
Citation: Amin Ibrahim. “SGLT 2 Inhibitors: Review of Systemic Effects and Safety". EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.10 (2020): 01-14.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.