Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 9 - 2020
Impact of Dietary Modification on Microbiome: Exploring Therapeutic Implications
Vinod Nikhra*
Senior Consultant and Faculty, Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, New Delhi, India
*Corresponding Author: Vinod Nikhra, Senior Consultant and Faculty, Department of Medicine, Hindu Rao Hospital and NDMC Medical College, New Delhi, India.
Received: May 21, 2020; Published: August 14, 2020




Abstract

The Human Gut Microbiome: The gastro-intestinal tract and various other organs harbour large and diverse communities of bacteria, viruses, and other microscopic life. In the human gut, there inhabit microbial members as residents (autochthonous), while others (allochthonous) are from ingested food, water and other components of the environment. The adult human gut microbiota is dominated by mainly two bacteria, the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes and an archaea, Metanobrevibacter smithii

The Gut Biosphere and Ecosystem: In general, the gut microbial community depends on their specific enzymes to utilize available nutrients, cell-surface molecular appendages to attach to their right habitat, evade bacteriophages, ability to deal with immune system and avoid washout and genetic mutability to stay well-adapted. The microbial ecosystems through the molecular processes influence various aspects of human metabolism and physiology. On the other hand, the host factors, such as dietary factors influence the host-microbial and microbial-microbial relationships.

Microbiota, Health and Disease States: Based on various clinical and animal studies, there has been documented a link between the gut microbiota and mental health. There exists a bidirectional microbiota-gut-brain communication which modulates brain function and behaviours. The microbial antigens or metabolites produced by members of the gut microbiome appear to improve the immune sensitivity to tumour cells, whereas the dysbiosis may cause loss of antitumor immunity. On the one hand, the inherent gut microbial enzymes and other molecules influence drug activation, efficacy and metabolism. The imbalances in the composition of the bacterial microbiota, known as dysbiosis, appears to be a major factor in various gastrointestinal disease states and extra-intestinal disorders.

Impact of Dietary Constituents on Microbiome: It is documented that a change in diet can alter the degradative activity of the colonic microbiota in vivo and in a physiologically relevant setting via influencing the expression of various microbial genes. Whereas, a diet low in dietary polysaccharides and fibre can trigger dysbiosis, degradation of the intestinal mucin layer and affecting intestinal health. The gut microbial production of short chain fatty acids and other metabolites has been documented to influence immune system.

Conclusion: The review article aims to highlight that dietary components influence and alter the composition of the gut microbiome. There are various studies that have documented the dynamic effect of altering host diet on the microbiota in the gut and other organs, with potential implications for disease modification and treatment.

Keywords: Gut Microbiome; Microbial Dysbiosis; Drug Metabolism; Oligosaccharides; Polysaccharides; Probiotics; Prebiotics

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Citation: Vinod Nikhra. “Impact of Dietary Modification on Microbiome: Exploring Therapeutic Implications". EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.9 (2020): 07-19.

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