Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 8 - 2020
The Role of Diabetes Mellitus (Both T1D and T2D) in the Atherosclerosis Development-A Systematic Review with Part of Inflammation along with Altered Glucose and Lipid Metabolism for Forming Therapeutic Approaches
Kulvinder Kochar Kaur1*, Gautam Allahbadia2 and Mandeep Singh3
1Scientific Director, DR Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
2Scientific Director, Rotunda-A Centre for Human Reproduction, Mumbai, India
3Consultant Neurologist, Swami Satyanand Hospital, Jalandhar, Punjab, India
*Corresponding Author: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur, Scientific Director, DR Kulvinder Kaur Centre for Human Reproduction, Jalandhar, Punjab, India.
Received: June 15, 2020; Published: July 30, 2020


Earlier we had reviewed the role of micro RNA’s in obesity as well as diabetes mellitus and importance of treating both together with the term diabesity coined along with the role of various transcription factors in lipid metabolism. Further we had evaluated the role of developing drugs for brown adipose tissue thermogenesis (BAT) along with mirabegron in obesity as well as macrophage polarization in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) along with various transcription factors in macrophage polarization, besides reviewing the role of macrophage polarization in tackling obesity as well as diabetes mellitus [91-96]. Here we have further tried to summarize the correlation among diabetes mellitus as well as atherosclerosis. Diabetes Mellitus is a well known disorder of the carbohydrate metabolism occurring secondary to defects in insulin liberation, insulin action or both. Atherosclerosis forms secondary to a multiple steps or events that finally culminates in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that is associated with great morbidity as well as mortality. Here we conducted a systematic review to find the correlation among diabetes mellitus as well as atherosclerosis utilizing the pubmed search engine with the MeSH terms like DM; atherosclerosis; Obesity; NAFLD; microRNA; inflammation; macrophage polarization; epigenetics; therapy. We found a total of 26,137 articles out of which we selected 97 articles for this review. It was seen that both type 1 (T1D) as well as type2 diabetes (T2D) can stimulate atherosclerosis formation or increased rate of propagation. Escalated glucose amounts, dyslipidaemia as well as other metabolic derangements have a close role in the etiopathogenesis of atherosclerosis at every step of atherogenic event. Chronic inflammation is believed to be a crucial factor in atherosclerosis formation, being present right from the initiation of the pathology. It might be thought to be a connection among atherosclerosis as well as diabetes mellitus. Inspite of the insight efficacious inflammatory treatments that would halt atherosclerosis generation or decrease further propagation have not been generated. Here we have tried to comprehensively summarize the various aetiopathogenetic pathways including roles of micro RNA as well as epigenetic events, as well as oxidative stress, changed PKC signaling, roles of various transcription factors to help form some effective anti-inflammatory therapies.

Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus; Atherosclerosis; Chronic Inflammation; Micro RNA; Epigenetic Events; Transcription Factors; PKC Signaling; Oxidative Stress


  1. Falk E. “Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 47.8 (2006): C7.
  2. Miname MH and Santos RD. “Reducing cardiovascular risks in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia: Risk prediction and lipid management”. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases 62 (2019): 414-422.
  3. Summerhill VL., et al. “The atherogenic role of circulating modified lipids in atherosclerosis”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 20 (2019): 3561.
  4. Taleb S. “Inflammation in atherosclerosis”. Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases 109 (2016): 708-715.
  5. Cheng F., et al. “Impact of glutathione peroxidise-1 deficiency on macrophage foam cell formation and proliferation: Implications for atherosclerosis”. PLoS ONE 8 (2013): e72063.
  6. Shwartz SM., et al. “Plaque rupture in human and mice”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 27 (2007): 705-713.
  7. Rekhter MD., et al. “Three dimensional cytoarchitecture of normal and atherosclerotic intima of human aorta”. The American Journal of Pathology 138 (1991): 569-580.
  8. Xepapadaki E., et al. “The antioxidant function of HDL in atherosclerosis”. Angiology 71 (2020): 112-121.
  9. Shah PK. “Molecular mechanisms of Plaque instability”. Current Opinion of Lipiodology 18 (2007): 492-499.
  10. Folco EJ., et al. “Neutrophil Extracellular traps induce endothelial cell activation and tissue factor production through Interleukin -1α and Cathepsin G”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 38 (2018): 1901-1912.
  11. Martinez MS., et al. “Energetic metabolism in cardiomyocytes: Molecular basis of ischemia and arrhythmogenesis”. Vessel Plus 1 (2017): 130-141.
  12. Shah PK. “Inflammation , infection and atherosclerosis”. Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 28 (2019): 468-472.
  13. Kharroubi AT and Darwish HM. “Diabetes Mellitus: The epidemic of the century”. World Journal of Diabetes 6 (2015): 850-867.
  14. American Diabetes Association. “Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus”. Diabetes Care 33.1 (2010): S62-S69.
  15. Bluestone JA., et al. “Genetics, pathogenesis and clinical interventions in Type 1 diabetes”. Nature 464 (2010): 1293.
  16. RoepBO., et al. “Satisfaction (not) guaranteed: Reevaluating the use of animal models of type1 diabetes”. Nature Reviews Immunology 4 (2004): 987-997.
  17. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “An Update on the Immunotherapy Strategies for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes (TID)-How Far have we Reached in Reaching Insulin Independency in TID therapy-A Systematic Review”. Journal of Endocrinology 4.1 (2020): 000149. 
  18. Notkins AL and Lernmark A. “Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes: Resolved and unresolved issues”. Journal of Clinical Investigation 108 (2001): 1247-1252.
  19. Wherrett DK., et al. “Antigen-based therapy with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)vaccine in patients with recent –onset type 1 diabetes: A randomized, double blind trial”. Lancet 378 (2011): 319-327.
  20. Genuth S., et al. “Expert Committee on the Diagnosis and classification of Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Follow up report on the diagnosis of Diagnosis and classification of Diabetes Mellitus”. Diabetes Care 26 (2003): 3160-3167.
  21. Stancakova A., et al. “Changes in insulin sensitivity and insulin release in relation to glycaemia and glucose tolerance in 6414 Finnish men”. Diabetes 58 (2009): 1212-1221.
  22. Cnop M., et al. “Progressive loss of beta cell function leads to worsening of glucose tolerance in first degree relatives of subjects with Type 2 Diabetes”. Diabetes Care 30 (2007): 677-682.
  23. Elbein SC., et al. “Heritability of pancreatic beta cell function among nondiabetic members of Caucasian familial Type 2 Diabetic kindreds”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 84 (1999): 1398-1403.
  24. Jensen CC., et al. “American Diabetes Association GENNID Study Group. Beta cell function is a major contributor to oral glucose tolerance in high risk relatives of four ethnic groups in the US”. Diabetes 51 (2002): 2170-2178.
  25. Orchard TJ., et al. “Type 1 Diabetes and coronary artery disease”. Diabetes Care 29 (2006): 2528-2538.
  26. Poznyak A., et al. “The Diabetes Mellitus- Atherosclerosis Connection: The Role of Lipid and Glucose Metabolism and Chronic Inflammation”. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 21 (2020): 1835.
  27. Berneiss KK and KraussRM. “Metabolic origins and clinical significance of LDL heterogeneity”. Journal of Lipid Research 43 (2002): 1363-1379.
  28. Ivanova EA., et al. “Small dense lipodensity lipoprotein as a biomarker for atherosclerotic diseases”. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity (2017): 1273042.
  29. Maguire EM., et al. “Foam cell formation: a new target for fighting atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease”. Vascular Pharmacology 112 (2019): 54-71.
  30. Hagensen MK., et al. “Increased retention of LDL from Type 1 Diabetic patients in atherosclerosis-prone areas of murine arterial wall”. Atherosclerosis 286 (2019): 156-162.
  31. Albers JJ., et al. “Prevalence and determinants of Elevated apolipoprotein B and dense lipodensity lipoprotein in youth with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes”. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 93 (2008): 735-742.
  32. Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications(EDIC)Study Research Group. Intensive Diabetes Treatment and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 1 Diabetes: The DCCT/ EDIC Study 30-year follow up”. Diabetes Care 39 (2016): 686-693.
  33. Holman RR., et al. “10-Year follow up of intensive Glucose control in Type 2 Diabetes”. The New England Journal of Medicine 359 (2008): 1577-1589.
  34. Hirano T. “Pathophysiology of diabetic dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes”. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 25 (2018): 771-782.
  35. Taskinen MR and Boren J. “New insights into the pathophysiology of dyslipidemia in Type 2 Diabetes”. Atherosclerosis 239 (2015): 483-495.
  36. Bornfeldt KE. “Does elevated Glucose promote Atherosclerosis? Pros and Cons”. Circulation Research 119 (2016): 190-193.
  37. Tabit CE., et al. “Protein kinase C-β contributes to impaired endothelial insulin signaling in humans with Diabetes Mellitus”. Circulation Research 119 (2016): 190-193.
  38. Katakani N. “Mechanism of development of Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in Diabetes Mellitus”. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 25 (2018): 27-39.
  39. Khan MI., et al. “Evidence supporting a role for endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development of Atherosclerosis in a hyperglycaemic mouse model”. Antioxidants and Redox Signaling 11 (2009): 2289-2298.
  40. Zeaden MG., et al. “Molecular mechanisms linking diabetes to the accelerated development of Atherosclerosis”. The Canadian Journal of Diabetes 37 (2013): 345-350.
  41. Vasametti SB., et al. “Metformin inhibits monocyte to macrophage differentiation via AMPK mediated inhibition of STAT3 activation: potential role in Atherosclerosis”. Diabetes 64 (2015): 2028-2041.
  42. Tang C., et al. “Both STAT 3 activation and cholesterol efflux contribute to the anti inflammatory effects of apoA1-ABCA1 interaction in macrophages”. Journal of Lipid Research 57 (2016): 848-857.
  43. Soro-Paavonen A., et al. “Receptor for Advanced glycation End-Products (RAGE) deficiency attenuates the development of Atherosclerosis in Diabetes”. Diabetes 57 (2008): 2461-2469.
  44. Hamasaki S., et al. “Effect of scavenger receptors -1 class A stimulation on macrophage morphology and highly modified, Advanced glycation End-Products-protein phagocytosis”. Scientific Reports 8 (2018): 5901.
  45. Jun JY., et al. “Spontaneous diabetic lns2+/Akita: apo E-/- mice exhibit exaggerated hypercholesteraemia and Atherosclerosis”. The American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 301 (2011): E145-E154.
  46. Jun JY., et al. “Segar Leptin treatment inhibits the progression of Atherosclerosis by attenuating hypercholesteraemia in Type 1 Diabetic lns2+/Akita: apo E-/- mice”. Atherosclerosis 225 (2012): 341-347.
  47. Catan A., et al. “Aging and glycation promote erythrocyte phagocytosis by human endothelial cells :Potential impact in Atherosclerosis under Diabetic conditions”. Atherosclerosis 291 (2019): 87-98.
  48. Osawa S., et al. “Autofluorescence is associated with Early stage Atherosclerosis in patients with Type 1 Diabetes”. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis 24 (2017): 312-326.
  49. DiMarco E., et al. “Are reactive oxygen species still the basis of Diabetic Complications?” Clinical Science 129 (2015): 199-216.
  50. Giacco F and Brownlee M. “Oxidative stress and Diabetic Complications”. Circulation Research 107 (2010): 1058-1070.
  51. Gray SP., et al. “NADPH Oxidase 1 plays a key role in Diabetes Mellitus-accelerated Atherosclerosis”. Circulation 127 (2013): 1888-1892.
  52. Chew P., et al. “Anti Atherosclerotic and renoprotective effects of ebselen in the diabetic apolipoprotein E/GPx1-double knockout mouse”. Diabetes 59 (2010): 3198-3207.
  53. Newton AC. “Regulation of the ABC Kinases by phosphorylation: Protein kinase C as a paradigm”. Biochemical Journal 88 (2008): 1341-378.
  54. Nishikawa T., et al. “Normalizing mitochondrial superoxide blocks three pathways of hyperglycaemic damage”. Nature 404 (2000): 787-790.
  55. Harja E., et al. “Mice deficient in PKC beta and apolipoprotein Edisplay decreased atherogenesis”. The FASEB Journal 23 (2009): 1081-1091.
  56. Kong L., et al. “PKCβ promotes vascular inflammation and acceleration of Atherosclerosis in diabetic apoE null mice”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 33 (2013): 1779-1787.
  57. Lee HM., et al. “Upregulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in patients with Type 2 Diabetes”. Diabetes 62 (2013): 194-204.
  58. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “An update on management of diabetic neuropathy with Diabetic Foot Syndrome-Optimization of therapy cost effectively with avoidance of gangrene and amputation’’-A Systematic Review”. Journal of Endocrinology 4.1 (2020): 000145.
  59. Menagazzo L., et al. “NETosis is induced by high glucose and associated with Type 2 Diabetes”. Acta Diabetologica 52 (2015): 497-503.
  60. Joshi MB., et al. “High glucose modulates IL-6 mediated immune homeostasis through impeding neutrophil extracellular trap formation”. FEBS Letters 587 (2013): 2241-2246.
  61. Nahrendorf M and Swirski FK. “Immunology Neutrophil-macrophage communication in inflammation and Atherosclerosis”. Science 349 (2015): 237-238.
  62. Tsalmandris S., et al. “The role of inflammation in Diabetes: Current concept and future perspectives”. European Cardiology 14 (2019): 50-59.
  63. Goldfine AB., et al. “A randomized trial of salsalate for insulin resistance and acceleration of cardiovascular risks factors in persons with abnormal glucose tolerance”. Diabetologia 56 (2013): 714-723.
  64. Ridker PM., et al. “Effect of interleukin-1beta inhibition with canakinumab on haemoglobinA1c,lipids,C-reactive protein , interleukin-6,and fibrinogen: A phase IIb randomized ,placebo controlled trial”. Circulation 126 (2012): 2739-2748.
  65. Everett BM., et al. “Anti-inflammatory therapy with canakinumab for the prevention and management of Diabetes”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 71 (2018): 2392-2401.
  66. Vasu S., et al. “Micro RNA signatures as future biomarkers for diagnosis of disease states”. Cells 8 (2019): 1533.
  67. Barutta F., et al. “Micro RNA and microvascular complications of Diabetes”. International Journal of Endocrinology (2018): 6890501.
  68. Cheng HS., et al. “Micro RNA-146 represses endothelial activation by inhibiting pro inflammatory pathways”. EMBO Molecular Medicine 5 (2013): 1017-1034.
  69. Zemecke A., et al. “Selivery of Micro RNA-126 by apoptotic bodies induces CXCL12 dependent vascular production”. Science Signaling 2 (2009): ra81.
  70. Machado LF., et al. “MiR -378a: A new emerging Micro RNA in metabolism”. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (2019).
  71. Chen W., et al. “MiR-378a Modulates macrophage phagocytosis and differentiation through targeting CD47-SIRP α Axis in Atherosclerosis”. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology 90 (2019): e12766.
  72. Das S., et al. “Diabetes Mellitus-Induced long noncoding RNA Dnm3os regulates macrophage functions and inflammation via nuclear mechanisms”. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology 38 (2018): 1806-1820.
  73. Clempus RE and Griendling KK. “Reactive oxygen species signalling in vascular smooth muscle cells”. Cardiovascular Research 71 (2006): 216-225.
  74. Kanwar YS., et al. “Diabetic nephropathy: mechanisms of renal disease progression”. Experimental Biology and Medicine 233 (2008): 4-11.
  75. Pirola L., et al. “Genome-wide analysis distinguishes hyperglycaemia regulated epigenetic signatures of primary vascular cells”. Genome Research 21 (2011): 1601-1615.
  76. Brasacchio D., et al. “Hyperglycaemia induces a dynamic cooperativity of histone methylase and demethlase enzymes associated with gene activating epigenetic marks that coexist on the lysine tail”. Diabetes 58 (2009): 1229-1236.
  77. Keating ST., et al. “Epigenetic changes in Diabetes and cardiovascular risks”. Circulation Research 118 (2016): 1706-1722.
  78. El-Osta A., et al. “Transient high glucose causes persistent Epigenetic changes and altered gene expression during subsequent normoglycaemia”. Journal of Experimental Medicine 205 (2008): 2409-2417.
  79. De Rosa S., et al. “Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and cardiovascular disease: genetic and Epigenetic links”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 9 (2018): 2.
  80. Criello A. “The emerging challenge in Diabetes: The ‘’metabolic memory’’. Vascular Pharmacology 57 (2012): 133-138. 
  81. O’Neil LA and Pearce EJ. “Immunometabolism governs dendritic cells and macrophage function”. Journal of Experimental Medicine 213 (2016): 15-23.
  82. Lewis JS., et al. “Macrophage responses to hypoxia :relevance of disease mechanisms”. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 66 (1999): 889-900.
  83. Repa JJ., et al. “Regulation of ATP binding cassette sterol transporters ABCG5 and ABCG8 by the Liver X receptors alpha and beta”. Journal of Biological Chemistry 277 (2002): 18793-18800.
  84. Fuentes L., et al. “Inflammatory mediators and insulin resistance in obesity: role of nuclear receptors Signaling in macrophages”. Mediators of Inflammation (2010): 319583. 
  85. Li P., et al. “NCoR repression of LXR’s restricts macrophage biosynthesis of insulin-sensitizing omega 3 fatty acids”. Cell 155 (2013): 200-214.
  86. Shu H., et al. “Activation of PPAR alpha or gamma reduces secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 9 but not Interleukin 8 from human monocytic THP-1 cells”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 267 (2000): 345-349.
  87. Ye G., et al. “PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma Activation attenuates total free Fatty acid and triglyceride accumulation in macrophages and decreases plasma levels in patients with type2 diabetes”. Cell Death and Disease 10 (2019): 39.
  88. Nagy I., et al. “Oxidized LDL regulates macrophage gene expression through ligand activation of PPAR gamma”. Cell 93 (1998): 229-240.
  89. Chinetti G., et al. “Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPARs )nuclear receptors with functions in the vascular wall”. Zeitschrift für Kardiologie 90.3 (2001): 125-132.
  90. Sugil S., et al. “PPAR gamma Activation in Adipocytes is sufficient for systemic insulin sensitization”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (2009): 22504-22509.
  91. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “An Update on Microrna’s and Metabolic Regulation with Future Therapeutic Potentials Regarding Diagnosis and Treatment of Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome and Other Related Disorders”. Journal of Health and Medical Informatics 6 (2015): 2. 
  92. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Advances in BAT physiology for understanding and translating into Pharmacotherapies for obesity and comorbidities”. MOJ Drug Design Development and Therapy 2.5 (2018): 166-176. 
  93. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Utilization of β3 Adrenergic Receptors as Targets for Treating Diabesity - Mirabegron and Beyond ‘’- A Systematic Review”. International Journal of Innovations in Biological and Chemical Sciences 11 (2018): 1-13.
  94. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Importance of simultaneous treatment of obesity and diabetes mellitus: A sequelae to the understanding of diabesity-A review”. Obesity Research - Open Journal 6.1 (2019): 1-10. 
  95. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Role of Combination Therapy with SGLT2 Inhibitor with Metformin as Initial Treatment for Type2 Diabetes-Advantages of Oral Fixed Drug Pill Like Empagliflozin/Metformin in Patients with Cardiovascular and Renal Risk-A Short Communication”. Archives of Diabetes and Endocrine System 2.1 (2019): 15-19.
  96. Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “Will Probiotics Provide the Answer for Therapy of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)? – A Systematic Review”. Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology 9 (2020): 257.
  97. Orliaguet L., et al. “Mechanisms of macrophage Polarization in insulin Signaling and sensitivity”. Frontiers in Endocrinology 11 (2020): 62.
Citation: Kulvinder Kochar Kaur., et al. “The Role of Diabetes Mellitus (Both T1D and T2D) in the Atherosclerosis Development-A Systematic Review with Part of Inflammation along with Altered Glucose and Lipid Metabolism for Forming Therapeutic Approaches". EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.8 (2020): 27-43.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.