Volume 4 Issue 4 - 2020
Enhanced Pro-inflammatory Response in Obese Individuals and the Association of TCF7L2 Gene Susceptibility in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Madhukar Saxena1*, Shubhangi Chaturvedi1, Shivangi Singh1, Pooja1, Sandeep Kumar Yadav2, Dinesh Raj Modi1
1Department of Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University) Vidya Vihar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2O.P. Chaudhary Hospital and Research Center, Chaudhary Vihar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
*Corresponding Author: Madhukar Saxena, Department of Biotechnology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University) Vidya Vihar, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
Received: February 28, 2020; Published: March 20, 2020

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a group of disease such as hyperglycemia, dyslipedimia and atherosclerosis. In T2DM cells are sluggish to respond to insulin and cause insulin resistance (IR). However, Obesity is the major risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) with associated metabolic disorders. In obese individuals having T2DM and/or AD the accumulation of lipid is increased in adipocytes results for increased regulation or the release of pro-inflammatory interleukins/cytokines and causes mutation in amyloid precursor protein and hampers impaired insulin activity. The WNT signaling pathway is involved in many physiological and pathophysiological activities. Wnt signaling plays an important role in the development of β-cell which is responsible for insulin secretion. If insulin is present in a very higher amount in our body that means insulin not utilized properly in body and caused type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To overcome this problem first we understand that how to WNT Pathway influences β-cell function and how to control them. Wnt binds to the Frizzled receptor, which prevents β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation. The β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 gene (TCF7L2) is expressed in adipose tissue & involved in WNT dependent regulation of adipogenesis. Genetic variants of this gene are associated with an increased strong risk factor for T2DM. The mechanisms are reduced insulin secretion is uncertain. TCF7L2 is a transcription factor involved in the WNT signaling pathway and is ubiquitously expressed. The expression of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α, TGF-β cytokines gene was highly increased in T2DM cases while the expression of anti-inflammatory gene viz. IL-1Ra, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 were reduced in T2DM cases is well known fact. An effort has been made in to clarify the role of inflammatory markers in the development of T2DM associated metabolic disorders. Large number of studies are going on in order to understand the cause of this disease, both environmental as well as genetic factors have been found to be involved. The macrophage culture from adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous layer having high protein content which change the gene expression IL-1β (Interleukin 1-Beta) simultaneously with high diet fed mouse model (HDFM) is used to understand this mechanism which showed increased expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) with high rate of inflammatory changes which results in deposition of (APP) in the brain. In results it showed that HDFM have enhanced APP expression and its microglia releases high amount of TNF-α (Tumour Necrosis Factor -alpha). It was also confirmed from the published reports that TCF7L2 SNPs are associated with reduced insulin secretion. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the reduced β-cell response as a function of the TCF7L2 genotype have not been defined. TCF7L2 is a WNT signaling-associated transcription factor that plays an important role in insulin stimulation production by β-cells. The studies concluded that obesity is a state of inflammation and with increase in obesity there is infiltration of macrophages and its associated immune cells, which causes various impairments in body results in T2DM and AD. The blocking IL-1β or controlling increased inflammation or high APP expression in body may prevent the cause of various metabolic disorders especially T2DM.

Citation: Madhukar Saxena., et al. “Enhanced Pro-inflammatory Response in Obese Individuals and the Association of TCF7L2 Gene Susceptibility in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus”. EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.4 (2020): 15.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.