Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 4 - 2020
Pancreatic Size, An Objective Evidence for Diagnosing the Type of Diabetes
Aaron Papade1*, Syed Mohiuddin1 and V Nikhil Kumar2
Pharm-D, Department of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar, Telangana, India
Pharm-D, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar, Telangana, India
*Corresponding Author: Aaron Papade, Pharm-D, Department of Clinical Pharmacy Practice, Vaageswari College of Pharmacy, Karimnagar, India.
Received: February 11, 2020; Published: March 16, 2020




Abstract

In emerging countries like India, still, the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is done on the bases of patient's age due to financial problems, unavailability of instruments, techniques and high cost of diagnostic tests which is not affordable by poor and normal people. Some modem tests include the GAD Antibodies test and the C-peptide test which are used in the diagnosis of type I and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This article shows the findings and Imaging techniques that can be done to identify the type of diabetes mellitus based on the size, echotexture, volume and weight of the pancreas. This imaging is cost-effective and can be afforded by all types of people.

Keywords: Imagining Study; Diabetes Diagnosis; Type I Diabetes; Type 2 Diabetes; Pancreas Size

References

  1. American Diabetes Association. "Standards of medical care in diabetes—2016: summary of revisions”. Diabetes Care 39.1 (2016): S4-S5.
  2. Cnop Miriam., et al. "Progressive loss of β-cell function leads to worsening glucose tolerance in first-degree relatives of subjects with type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care 30.3 (2007): 677-682.
  3. Brozzi Flora., et al. "Cytokines induce endoplasmic reticulum stress in human, rat and mouse beta cells via different mechanisms”. Diabetologia 58.10 (2015): 2307-2316.
  4. Butler Alexandra E., et al. "Increased β-cell apoptosis prevents adaptive increase in β-cell mass in mouse model of type 2 diabetes: evidence for role of islet amyloid formation rather than direct action of amyloid”. Diabetes 52.9 (2003): 2304-2314.
  5. Donath MY and Philippe A Halban. "Decreased beta-cell mass in diabetes: significance, mechanisms and therapeutic implications”. Diabetologia 47.3 (2004): 581-589.
  6. Löhr M and G Klöppel. "Residual insulin positivity and pancreatic atrophy in relation to duration of chronic type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus and microangiopathy”. Diabetologia 30.10 (1987): 757-762.
  7. Rahier Jacques., et al. "Pancreatic β‐cell mass in European subjects with type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 10 (2008): 32-42.
  8. Nakanishi Koji., et al. "Relationships among residual β cells, exocrine pancreas, and islet cell antibodies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus”. Metabolism 42.2 (1993): 196-203.
  9. Meier JJ., et al. "Sustained beta cell apoptosis in patients with long-standing type 1 diabetes: indirect evidence for islet regeneration?” Diabetologia 48.11 (2005): 2221-2228.
  10. Stamm BH. "Incidence and diagnostic significance of minor pathologic changes in the adult pancreas at autopsy: A systematic study of 112 autopsies in patients without known pancreatic disease”. Human Pathology 15.7 (1984): 677-683.
  11. Putzke HP and G Friedrich. "Pancreatopathy in diabetes mellitus”. Zentralblatt fur Allgemeine Pathologie u. pathologische Anatomie 131.1 (1986): 37-41.
  12. Campbell-Thompson Martha., et al. "Pancreas organ weight in individuals with disease-associated autoantibodies at risk for type 1 diabetes”. Journal of the American Medical Association 308.22 (2012): 2337-2339.
  13. Campbell-Thompson Martha L., et al. "The influence of type 1 diabetes on pancreatic weight”. Diabetologia 59.1 (2016): 217-221.
  14. Szczepaniak Lidia S., et al. "Magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure hepatic triglyceride content: prevalence of hepatic steatosis in the general population”. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology and Metabolism 288.2 (2005): E462-E468.
  15. Rosqvist Fredrik., et al. "Overfeeding polyunsaturated and saturated fat causes distinct effects on liver and visceral fat accumulation in humans”. Diabetes 63.7 (2014): 2356-2368.
  16. Kim So Yeon., et al. "Quantitative assessment of pancreatic fat by using unenhanced CT: pathologic correlation and clinical implications”. Radiology 271.1 (2014): 104-112.
  17. Tushuizen, Maarten E., et al. "Pancreatic fat content and β-cell function in men with and without type 2 diabetes”. Diabetes Care 30.11 (2007): 2916-2921.
  18. Heni Martin, et al. "Pancreatic fat is negatively associated with insulin secretion in individuals with impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance: a nuclear magnetic resonance study”. Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 26.3 (2010): 200-205.
  19. Alzaid A., et al. "The size of the pancreas in diabetes mellitus”. Diabetic Medicine 10.8 (1993): 759-763.
  20. Lim Soo., et al. "Differences in pancreatic volume, fat content, and fat density measured by multidetector-row computed tomography according to the duration of diabetes”. Acta Diabetologica 51.5 (2014): 739-748.
  21. Macauley Mavin., et al. "Altered volume, morphology and composition of the pancreas in type 2 diabetes”. PloS One 10.5 (2015): e0126825.
  22. Silva Maria ER, et al. "Ultrasonographic abnormalities of the pancreas in IDDM and NIDDM patients”. Diabetes Care 16.9 (1993): 1296-1297.
  23. Goda K., et al. "Pancreatic volume in type 1 und type 2 diabetes mellitus”. Acta Diabetologica 38.3 (2001): 145-149.
  24. Garcia Tiago Severo., et al. "Pancreatic size and fat content in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of imaging studies”. PloS one 12.7 (2017): e0180911.
  25. Fonseca V., et al. "Size of pancreas in diabetes mellitus: a study based on ultrasound”. British Medical Journal (Clinical Research Edition) 291.6504 (1985): 1240-1241.
  26. Regnell Simon Eringsmark., et al. "Pancreas volume and fat fraction in children with type 1 diabetes”. Diabetic Medicine 33.10 (2016): 1374-1379.
  27. Kreel Louis., et al. "Computed tomography of the normal pancreas”. Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography 1.3 (1977): 290-299.
  28. Laakso M and Pyörälä K. “Age of onset and type of diabetes”. Diabetes Care 8.2 (1985): 114-117.
  29. Otani T., et al. “Age of onset and type of Japanese younger diabetics in Tokyo”. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 10.3 (1990): 241-244.
Citation: Aaron Papade., et al. “Pancreatic Size, An Objective Evidence for Diagnosing the Type of Diabetes”. EC Nutrition 4.4 (2020): 01-05.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


December Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 21, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.