Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 3 - 2020
Obesity, Diabetes and the Changing Environment
Gerald H Tomkin*
Professor, Beacon Clinic and Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland
*Corresponding Author: GH Tomkin, Professor, Beacon Clinic and Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland.
Received: February 12, 2020; Published: February 26, 2020




Abstract

Obesity, undernutrition and diabetes are linked to the environment. We live in a rapidly changing environment. Population expansion is making a dramatic impact on climate change and have a dramatic effect on both health and food production.

The rise in obesity in children is due to our changing environment, where unhealthy food and beverages are so heavily advertised and where exercise opportunities are being diminished. Answers to the problem are available and discussed in this article. The rise in diabetes is related to obesity. Diabetes is a disease which places a considerable economic burden on the community and is associated with reduction in productivity and increase in years of disability. Curbing obesity and encouraging exercise will diminish diabetes and is of proven value.

The place of chemicals and toxins in the cause of the diabetes explosion is poorly researched but may play a part.

The population increase over the past decades has not levelled off as had been expected and is not sustainable. Efforts to decrease birth rates have not been sustained but are possible and of proven effectiveness. 40% of pregnancies are unplanned and unintended.

Climate change has made a dramatic effect on weather patterns. Fires and floods are an important cause of illness, disability and loss of productivity. Changes in our agricultural methods must occur if we are to feed the increasing population with healthy, rather than unhealthy, food in the quantities we require. In particular, red or processed meat production is inefficient as a way of increasing healthy food production and there are many health hazards associated with meat as a food.

Obesity, undernutrition and climate change is considered a pandemic. The tools for change are available. Political will less evident.

Keywords: Obesity; Diabetes; Undernutrition

References

  1. Swinburn BA., et al. The Lancet Commission Report. “The global Syndemic of obesity, under nutrition and climate change”. Lancet 393 (2019): 791-850.
  2. Luo J., et al. “Intentional Weight Loss and Obesity Related Cancer Risk”. JNCI Cancer Spectrum 9.3 (2019):054
  3. Picon-Ruiz M., et al. “Obesity and adverse breast cancer risk and outcome: Mechanistic insights and strategies for intervention”. A Cancer Journal for Clinicians (2017).
  4. Jain R., et al. “The role of the lipidome in obesity-mediated colon cancer risk”. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 59 (2018): 1-9.
  5. Carr PR., et al. “Association of BMI and major molecular pathological markers of colorectal cancer in men and women”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2020): nqz315.
  6. An Independent Report by the Chief Medical Officer, guidelines (2019).
  7. Mytton OT., et al. “Protecting children's rights: why governments must be bold to tackle childhood obesity”. Lancet 394 (2019): 1393-1395.
  8. Evans GW. “The environment of childhood poverty”. American Psychologist 59 (2004): 77-92.
  9. Swinburn BA., et al. “The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments”. Lancet 378 (2011): 804-814. 
  10. Bjerregaard LG., et al. “Change in Overweight from Childhood to Early Adulthood and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes”. The New England Journal of Medicine 378 (2018): 1302-1312. 
  11. Tuomilehto J., et al. “Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance”. The New England Journal of Medicine 344 (2001): 1343-1350.
  12. Knowler WC., et al. “Reduction in the incidence of type 2 diabetes with lifestyle intervention or metformin”. The New England Journal of Medicine 346 (2002): 393-403.
  13. Larouche R., et al. “Associations between active school transport and physical activity, body composition, and cardiovascular fitness: a systematic review of 68 studies”. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 11 (2014): 206-227. 
  14. Marzi I and Demetriou Y. “Reimers AK3 Social and physical environmental correlates of independent mobility in children: a systematic review taking sex/gender differences into account”. International Journal of Health Geographics 17 (2018): 24.
  15. Stone MR., et al. “The freedom to explore: examining the influence of independent mobility on weekday, weekend and after-school physical activity behaviour in children living in urban and inner-suburban neighbourhoods of varying socioeconomic status”. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 22.11 (2014): 5. 
  16. Masoumi HE. “Associations of built environment and children's physical activity: a narrative review”. Reviews on Environmental Health 32.4 (2017): 315-331.
  17. Pacilli MG et al. “Children and the public realm: antecedents and consequences of independent mobility in a group of 11–13-year-old Italian children”. Journal of the Children’s Geographies 11 (2013): 377 -393.
  18. Christakis NA and Fowler J. “Social contagion theory: examining dynamic social networks and human behavior”. Stat Medicine 32 (2013): 556-577.
  19. Christakis NA and Fowler JH. “The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years”. The New England Journal of Medicine 357 (2007): 370-379.
  20. Cohen-Cole E and Fletcher JM. “Is obesity contagious? Social networks vs. environmental factors in the obesity epidemic”. Journal of Health Economics 27 (2008): 1382-1387. 
  21. WHO. Diabetes fact sheet (2018).
  22. World Health Organization. Global report on diabetes. World Health Organization (‎2016)‎. 
  23. International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas (2017).
  24. Wells JCK. “The diabesity epidemic in the light of evolution: insights from the capacity-load model”. Diabetologia 62 (2019): 1740-1750.
  25. Bao X., et al. “Growth differentiation factor 15 is positively associated with incidence of diabetes mellitus: the Malmö Diet and Cancer-Cardiovascular Cohort”. Diabetologia 62 (2019): 78-86. 
  26. Ravelli AC., et al. “Glucose tolerance in adults after prenatal exposure to famine”. Lancet 17.351 (1998): 173-177.
  27. McMillen IC, Robinson JS. “Developmental origins of the metabolic syndrome: prediction, plasticity, and programming”. Physiological Reviews 85 (2005): 571-633.
  28. Hales CN., et al. “Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64”. British Medical Journal 303 (1991): 1019-1022.
  29. Li Y., et al. “Exposure to the Chinese famine in early life and the risk of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in adulthood”. Diabetes 59 (2010): 2400-2406.
  30. Dabelea D., et al. “Increasing prevalence of Type II diabetes in American Indian children”. Diabetologia 41 (1998): 904-910.
  31. Perng W., et al. “A prospective study of associations between in utero exposure to gestational diabetes mellitus and metabolomic profiles during late childhood and adolescence”. Diabetologia 63 (2020): 296-312.
  32. Sargis RM and Simmons RA. “Environmental neglect: endocrine disruptors as underappreciated but potentially modifiable diabetes risk factors”. Diabetologia 62 (2019): 1811-1822. 
  33. Anderson DJ. “Population and the Environment - Time for Another Contraception Revolution”. The New England Journal of Medicine 381 (2019): 397-399. 
  34. Crist E., et al. “The interaction of human population, food production, and biodiversity protection”. Science 356 (2017): 260-264. 
  35. The economic case for climate action in the United States.
  36. The Lancet. “Heatwaves and health”. Lancet 392 (2018): 359. 
  37. https:publications.parliment.uk/pa/cm201719/cmselect/cmevaud/826/826.pdf4 Lún 2018 - 359. 
  38. Glaser J., et al. “Climate Change and the Emergent Epidemic of CKD from Heat Stress in Rural Communities: The Case for Heat Stress Nephropathy”. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 11 (2016): 1472-1483.
  39. Sorensen C., et al. “A New Era of Climate Medicine - Addressing Heat-Triggered Renal Disease”. The New England Journal of Medicine 22 (2019): 381: 693-696.
  40. Watts N., et al. “The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: from 25 years of inaction to a global transformation for public health”. Lancet 391 (2018): 581-630. 
  41. Liu C., et al. “Ambient Particulate Air Pollution and Daily Mortality in 652 Cities”. The New England Journal of Medicine 381 (2019): 705-715.
  42. Brunekreef B and Holgate ST. “Air pollution and health”. Lancet 360 (2002): 1233-1242.
  43. The American Lung Associations 2019 State of the air report.
  44. The Lancet. “The emerging voices of youth activists”. Lancet 393 (2019): 1774.
  45. Haines A and Ebi K. “The Imperative for Climate Action to Protect Health”. The New England Journal of Medicine 380 (2019): 263-273.
  46. The Lancet. “We need to talk about meat”. Lancet 392 (2018): 2237.
  47. Dabelea D., et al. “We need to talk about meat”. Lancet 41 (2018): 904-910.
  48. QandA on the carcinogenicity of the consumption of red meat. WHO 2015.
  49. Reynolds A., et al. “Carbohydrate quality and human health: a series of systematic reviews and meta-analyses”. Lancet (2019): 393434-393445.
  50. Lucas T and Horton R. “The 21st-century great food transformation”. Lancet (2019): 393386-393387. 
  51. Willett W., et al. “The EAT-Lancet Commission: a flawed approach? - Authors' reply”. Lancet 394 (2019): 1141-1142.
  52. Willett W., et al. “Healthy diets and sustainable food systems”. Lancet 394 (2019): 215-216. 
  53. State of food security and nutrition in the world report. (2019).
  54. Swinburn BA., et al. “The Global Syndemic of Obesity, Undernutrition, and Climate Change: The Lancet Commission report”. Lancet 393 (2019): 791-846.
Citation: Gerald H Tomkin. “Obesity, Diabetes and the Changing Environment”. EC Nutrition 4.3 (2020): 01-08.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.