Review Article
Volume 4 Issue 3 - 2020
Pediatric Dyslipidemias: Screening, Diagnosis and Management
Sayantan Ray2*, Subhodip Pramanik2 and Dibbendhu Khanra3
1Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medica Superspeciality Hospital, Kolkata, India
2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Neotia Getwel Healthcare Centre, Siliguri, India
3Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Rishikesh, India
*Corresponding Author: Sayantan Ray, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Medica Superspeciality Hospital, Kolkata, India.
Received: January 23, 2020; Published: February 25, 2020




Abstract

  Through the last 50 years, it has become evident that atherosclerosis begins in childhood. Even if cardiovascular disease (CVD) events are uncommon in children, studies have found the subclinical disease in association with measurable risk factors during childhood. Identifying this susceptible population makes the chance to prevent the development of risk factors and CVD events in the future with effective management of genetic and acquired risk factors. In the United States, approximately 20 percent of children (age 6 - 19 years) have adverse levels of one or more lipid values. Childhood dyslipidemia has a major genetic component, but environmental factors for example diet and lack of physical activity can also influence the lipid profile. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition causing lifelong elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Early detection and proper management of these patients are essential to reduce CVD morbidity and mortality. Pediatric dyslipidemia guidelines were first published in 1992, following by a gap during which no formal guidelines were developed. In 2011, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines for CVD risk reduction in children were published. Besides screening individuals with a family history of hypercholesterolemia and/or premature CVD, the Expert Panel recommended universal screening of all children between 9 and 11 years, and that LDL-C levels should be below 110 mg/dL in children and adolescents. Statins are considered as first-line therapy owing to their proven efficacy to reduce LDL-C and improve other lipid parameters in children. They have also been shown to have a positive effect on atherosclerosis. Safety is of particular concern with children; however, studies have so far documented that the side-effect profile of statins in children is comparable to that in adults.

Keywords: Pediatric Dyslipidemia; Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol; Cardiovascular Disease; Management Guidelines; Statins

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Citation: Sayantan Ray., et al."Pediatric Dyslipidemias: Screening, Diagnosis and Management”. EC Diabetes and Metabolic Research 4.3 (2020): 01-09.

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