Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 2 - 2020
The Impact of Smoking on Periodontal Tissues: Review Article
Meshari Alsuwailem*
Dentistry College, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Meshari Alsuwailem, Dentistry College, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.
Received: January 11, 2020; Published: January 22, 2020


Smoking have potential biological mechanisms that might effects the human’s immune system, altering microflora of the mouth, periodontal tissues destruction including clinical attachment loss, mobility and loosing of teeth, oral malodor and nonsurgical and surgical periodontal treatments. Furthermore, in this article will review the impact of smoking on periodontal tissues give importance to the impact of smoking on periodontium, oral microflora of smokers, impact of smoking on host response, gingival diseases, periodontal diseases, frequencies smoking, response to treatment of periodontium, discontinuation of smoking and systemic manifestations of smokers.

Keywords: Smoking; Periodontal Tissues; Microflora


  1. Chatrchaiwiwatana S and Ratanasiri A. “Periodontitis associated with tobacco smoking among rural Khon Kaen Thai males: Analysis of two data sets”. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand (2009).
  2. Yanagisawa T., et al. “Relationship of smoking and smoking cessation with number of teeth present: JPHC Oral Health Study”. Oral Diseases (2009). 
  3. Bergström J. “Oral hygiene compliance and gingivitis expression in cigarette smokers”. European Journal of Oral Sciences (1990). 
  4. Danielsen B., et al. “Transition dynamics in experimental gingivitis in humans”. Journal of Periodontal Research (1989). 
  5. Qandil R., et al. “Tobacco smoking and periodontal diseases”. Journal Canadian Dental Association 63.3 (1997): 187-192.
  6. Zambon JJ., et al. “Cigarette smoking increases the risk for subgingival infection with periodontal pathogens”. Journal of Periodontology 67.10 (1996): 1050-1054. 
  7. Umeda M., et al. “Risk Indicators for Harboring Periodontal Pathogens”. Journal of Periodontology (1998). 
  8. Haffajee AD and Socransky SS. “Relationship of cigarette smoking to the subgingival microbiota”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (2001). 
  9. Borbour SE., et al. “Tobacco and smoking: Environmental factors modify the host response (immune system) and have an impact on periodontal health”. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine (1997). 
  10. Bergström J., et al. “A 10-Year Prospective Study of Tobacco Smoking and Periodontal Health”. Journal of Periodontology (2005). 
  11. Lie MA., et al. “Evaluation of 2 methods to assess gingival bleeding in smokers and non-smokers in natural and experimental gingivitis”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1998). 
  12. Kinane DF and Radvar M. “The Effect of Smoking on Mechanical and Antimicrobial Periodontal Therapy”. Journal of Periodontology (1997). 
  13. Mosely LH., et al. “Nicotine and its effect on wound healing”. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (1978). 
  14. Riebel GD., et al. “The effect of nicotine on incorporation of cancellous bone graft in an animal model”. Spine (1995). 
  15. Noble RC and Penny BB. “Comparison of leukocyte count and function in smoking and nonsmoking young men”. Infection and Immunity (1975).
  16. Mcsharry C., et al. “Effect of cigarette smoking on the antibody response to inhaled antigens and the prevalence of extrinsic allergic alveolitis among pigeon breeders”. Clinical and Experimental Allergy (1985). 
  17. Gunsolley JC., et al. “The effect of race, smoking and immunoglobulin allotypes on IgG subclass concentrations”. Journal of Periodontal Research (1997). 
  18. Bagaitkar J., et al. “Smoking enhances bone loss in anterior teeth in a Brazilian population: a retrospective cross-sectional study”. Brazilian Oral Research 22.4 (2008): 328-333. 
  19. Bagaitkar J., et al. “Tobacco upregulates P. gingivalis fimbrial proteins which induce TLR2 hyposensitivity”. PLoS ONE (2010). 
  20. Preber H., et al. “Cigarette smoking, oral hygiene and periodontal health in Swedish army conscripts”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1980). 
  21. Preber H and Kant T. “Effect of tobacco- smoking on periodontal tissue of 15-year-old schoolchildren”. Journal of Periodontal Research (2006). 
  22. Feldman RS., et al. “Association Between Smoking Different Tobacco Products and Periodontal Disease Indexes”. Journal of Periodontology (2012). 
  23. Macgregor IDM. “Toothbrushing efficiency in smokers and non‐smokers”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1984). 
  24. Ismail AI., et al. “Epidemiologic patterns of smoking and periodontal disease in the United States”. Journal of the American Dental Association (1939). 
  25. Boström L., et al. “Smoking and subgingival microflora in periodontal disease”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (2001). 
  26. Machuca G., et al. “Effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal status of healthy young adults”. Journal of Periodontology (2000). 
  27. Locker D and Leake JL. “Risk Indicators and Risk Markers for Periodontal Disease Experience in Older Adults Living Independently in Ontario, Canada”. Journal of Dental Research (1993). 
  28. Bergstrom J., et al. “Cigarette smoking and periodontal bone loss”. Journal of Periodontology 62.12 (1991): 809.
  29. Lima FR., et al. “Smoking enhances bone loss in anterior teeth in a Brazilian population: a retrospective cross-sectional study”. Brazilian Oral Research 22.4 (2008): 328-333.
  30. Tomar SL and Asma S. “Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States: findings from NHANES III. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey”. Journal of Periodontology (2000). 
  31. Winn DM. “Tobacco Use and Oral Disease”. Journal of Dental Education (2001).
  32. Grossi SG., et al. “Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. I. Risk indicators for attachment loss”. The Journal of Periodontology (1994). 
  33. Grossi SG., et al. “Assessment of risk for periodontal disease. II. Risk indicators for alveolar bone loss”. The Journal of Periodontology (1995). 
  34. Martinez‐Canut P., et al. “Smoking and periodontal disease severity”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1995). 
  35. Krall EA. “Smoking, smoking cessation, and tooth loss”. Journal of Dental Research (1997). 
  36. Kent RL., et al. “Evidence for Cigarette Smoking as a Major Risk Factor for Periodontitis”. Journal of Periodontology (2010). 
  37. Ahlqwist, M., et al. “Smoking habits and tooth loss in Swedish women”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 17.3 (1989): 144-147. 
  38. Kaldahl WB., et al. “Levels of Cigarette Consumption and Response to Periodontal Therapy”. Journal of Periodontology (1996). 
  39. Grossi SG., et al. “Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on healing after mechanical periodontal therapy”. Journal of the American Dental Association (1997). 
  40. Baumert Ah MK., et al. “The effect of smoking on the response to periodontal therapy”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1994). 
  41. MacFarlane GD., et al. “Refractory Periodontitis Associated With Abnormal Polymorphonuclear Leukocyte Phagocytosis and Cigarette Smoking”. Journal of Periodontology (1992). 
  42. Magnusson I., et al. “Treatment of subjects with refractory periodontal disease”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1994). 
  43. Magnusson I and Walker CB. “Refractory periodontitis or recurrence of disease”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1996). 
  44. Miller PD. “Root coverage with the free gingival graft. Factors associated with incomplete coverage”. Journal of Periodontology (1987). 
  45. Müller HP., et al. “Gingival dimensions after root coverage with free connective tissue grafts”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (1998). 
  46. Zucchelli, G., et al. “Mucogingival Versus Guided Tissue Regeneration Procedures in the Treatment of Deep Recession Type Defects”. Journal of Periodontology (1998). 
  47. De Bruyn H and Collaert B. “The effect of smoking on early implant failure”. Clinical Oral Implants Research (1994). 
  48. Lindquist LW. “Association between marginal bone loss around osseointegrated mandibular implants and smoking habits: A 10-year follow-up study”. Journal of Dental Research (1997). 
  49. Jin L., et al. “Comparison of Treatment Response Patterns Following Scaling and Root Planing in Smokers and Non-smokers with Untreated Adult Periodontitis”. Journal of Clinical Dentistry (2000).
  50. Scabbia A., et al. “Cigarette Smoking Negatively Affects Healing Response Following Flap Debridement Surgery”. Journal of Periodontology (2001). 
  51. Söder B., et al. “Longitudinal Effect of Non-Surgical Treatment and Systemic Metronidazole for 1 Week in Smokers and Non-Smokers with Refractory Periodontitis: A 5-Year Study”. Journal of Periodontology (1999). 
  52. Heasman, L., et al. “The effect of smoking on periodontal treatment response: A review of clinical evidence”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology (2006). 
  53. Eliasson B. “Cigarette smoking and diabetes”. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases (2003): 405-413. 
  54. Willi C., et al. “Active smoking and the risk of type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis”. Journal of the American Medical Association (2007). 
  55. American Diabetes Association “Executive summary: Standards of medical care in diabetes--2012”. Diabetes Care (2012). 
  56. Hyman JJ and Reid BC. “Cigarette Smoking, Periodontal Disease, and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease”. Journal of Periodontology (2004). 
  57. Orth S. R., et al. “Smoking as a risk factor for end-stage renal failure in men with primary renal disease”. Kidney International 54.3 (1998): 926-931.
  58. Ritz E., et al. “Effects of smoking on renal hemodynamics in healthy volunteers and in patients with glomerular disease”. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 9.10 (1998): 1798-1804.
  59. Hollenbach KA., et al. “Cigarette smoking and bone mineral density in older men and women”. American Journal of Public Health (1993).
Citation: Meshari Alsuwailem. “The Impact of Smoking on Periodontal Tissues: Review Article". EC Dental Science 19.2 (2020): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 21, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to