Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 2 - 2020
Knowledge and Practice of Orthodontics Retainers
Nabeel Hussein Almarzooq1*, Shaza Jamil Ashqar2, Jassem Abdullah Al Mubarak2, Sarah Hassan Almobarak2, Abeer Habib Al-Mousa2, Mawia Abdulaziz Alhazmi3, Ahdab Alizain A Alahdal3, Samirah Hashim Jabir3, Yara Ahmed Saeedi4, Medrar Hamza Alsisi4, Bayan Hassan Al Othman5, Wala’a Fuad Al-Mubarak6 and Ziad Ali Alghamdi7
1Care and Beauty Medical Complex, Saudi Arabia
2Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia
3Batterjee Medical College, Saudi Arabia
4Ibn Sina College, Saudi Arabia
5Al Farabi College in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
6Hussain Alali Hospital, Saudi Arabia
7King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Nabeel Hussein Almarzooq, Care and Beauty Medical Complex, Saudi Arabia.
Received: January 04, 2020; Published: January 22, 2020




Abstract

Introduction: Retention is one of the most important phases of orthodontic treatment. The lack of a retention phase post orthodontic treatment will cause the teeth to move back to their original maloccluded position (Relapse). Some form of retention is always accompanied in orthodontically treated cases cased on the severity of the malocclusion.

Aim of the Work: The review aimed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding the importance and efficacy of orthodontic retainers.

Methodology: The review is a comprehensive research of PUBMED from the year 1919 - 2019.

Conclusion: The choice of orthodontic retainer selected for each individual case should be carefully chosen. Each individual will have its own set of indications and contraindications. Hence Good knowledge regarding the advantages of choosing the correct type of retainer will reduce unwanted complications. Even though orthodontic retention is a topic of serious debate between removable and fixed retainers and between vacuum formed and Hawley’s retainers, the efficacy of all in maintaining the treatment results are comparable. It is of extreme importance that patients are educated and motivated well about the use of retainers and to maintain good oral hygiene practices during the retention phase. Patients should also be motivated for regular dental check-ups during the same.

Keywords: Orthodontic Retainers; Types of Retainers; Relapse of Retainers; Stabilization of Retainers

References

  1. Rossouw PE and Malik S. “The retention protocol”. In Seminars in Orthodontics 23.2 (2017): 237-248.
  2. Simon J., et al. “Worthington - Orthodontic retention: A systematic review”. Journal of Orthodontics 33 (2006): 205-212.
  3. William R Proffit., et al. “Contemporary Orthodontics”. Fifth Edition (2013).
  4. Hawley CA. “A removable retainer”. International Journal of Orthodontia and Oral Surgery 5.6 (1919): 291-305.
  5. Sahoo KC and Pattanaik S. “Modified Wrap-Around Retainer: A Quick Tip to Enhance the Retention of the Appliance”. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 10.7 (2016): ZH01.
  6. Graber LW., et al. “Orthodontics-E-Book: current principles and techniques”. Elsevier Health Sciences (2016).
  7. Frans PGM., et al. “The Van der Linden Retainer”. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 4 (2003).
  8. Sheridan JJ., et al. “Essix retainers: fabrication and supervision for permanent retention”. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 27.1 (1993): 37-45.
  9. Chudasama D and Sheridan JJ. “Transarch stabilizing wire for Essix retainers”. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 44.8 (2010): 498.
  10. Lindauer SJ. “Comparison of Essix and Hawley retainers”. Journal of Clinical Orthodontics 32 (1998): 95-97.
  11. Demir A., et al. “Comparison of retention characteristics of Essix and Hawley retainers”. The Korean Journal of Orthodontics 42.5 (2012): 255-262.
  12. Sauget E., et al. “Comparison of occlusal contacts with use of Hawley and clear overlay retainers”. The Angle Orthodontist 67.3 (1997): 223-230.
  13. Lustig JR. “Short-Term Evaluation of Post-Orthodontic Occlusion with a Wrap-Around and Clear Overlay Retainer”. Texas, United States (2001).
  14. Littlewood SJ. “Evidence-based retention: Where are we now?”. Seminars in Orthodontics 23.2 (2017): 229-236.
  15. Heier EE., et al. “Periodontal implications of bonded versus removable retainers”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 112.6 (1997): 607-616.
  16. Bearn DR. “Bonded orthodontic retainers: a review”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 108.2 (1995): 207-213.
  17. Zachrisson BJ. “Third-generation mandibular bonded lingual 3-3 retainer”. Journal of clinical orthodontics 29.1 (1995): 39-48.
  18. Frederick A., et al. “Twenty-year follow-up of patients with permanently bonded mandibular canine-to-canine retainers”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics 133 (2008): 70-76.
  19. Zachrisson BU. “Multistranded wire bonded retainers: from start to success”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 148.5 (2015): 724-727.
  20. Kartal Y and Kaya B. “Fixed Orthodontic Retainers: A Review”. Turkish Journal of Orthodontics 32.2 (2019): 110.
  21. Kravitz ND., et al. “A CAD/CAM nickel-titanium lingual retainer”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopaedics 151.4 (2017): 812-815.
Citation: Nabeel Hussein Almarzooq., et al. “Knowledge and Practice of Orthodontics Retainers”. EC Dental Science 19.2 (2020): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 21, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk