Review Article
Volume 2 Issue 1 - 2015
Marginal Adaptation versus Esthetics for Various Dental Restorations: A Review Article
RA El-Dessouky*
Department of fixed Prosthodontic, Tanta University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: R A El-Dessouky, Department fixed Prosthodontic, Faculty of Dentistry, Tanta University, Egypt.
Received: July 14, 2015; Published: July 30, 2015.
Citation: RA El-Dessouky. “Marginal Adaptation versus Esthetics for Various Dental Restorations: A Review Article”. EC Dental Science 2.1 (2015): 240-246.
Porcelain jacket crown was considered the most esthetic restoration. However, the inherent weaknesses and brittleness of dental porcelain together with the high sintering shrinkage have been recorded as severe drawbacks against its universal acceptance as a complete veneer restoration [1].
Metal ceramic restoration was developed in order to provide a metal substructure to reinforce the porcelain and improve marginal integrity. However, the gingival band of metal substructure along with the high reflectivity of metal and opaque porcelain compromised the esthetics of the restoration [1].
Several attempts have been described to eliminate or mask the cervical metal collar while retaining the strength of cast metal substructure such as thin metal collar design in an attempt to visually eliminate it, but Donovan and Prince found that these margins could distort when the porcelain was fired, greatly compromising the fit of the restoration [2]. Facial butted porcelain margin was developed by covering the facial collar of metal with porcelain in an attempt to hide it from view. This modification cannot be done without over contouring the restoration which can lead to gingival irritation [3]. Collarless design was an alternative approach to fabricate the metal ceramic restoration. Such an approach would combine the Strength of the metal ceramic crown with the esthetics of the porcelain jacket crown at the margin. Several techniques were developed in an attempt to simplify fabricating these restorations such as platinum foil, refractory die and direct lift technique [4].
Despite the numerous techniques available, the increasing desire for better esthetics and improved biocompatibility has led to the development of a large number of all-ceramic restorative systems. Some of them use a single-layer glass-ceramic material E.g., Dicor and IPS Empress, whereas others have a dual-layer design E.g., In-Ceram and Procera System. Further improvements in high-strength all-ceramic technology have been achieved with the advent of computer-aided design and milling (CAD/CAM) systems [5].
Definition & Terminology
Marginal discrepancy has been defined as the closest distance between retainer and tooth preparation to avoid over-extension or under-extension of the retainer [6]. Different methods were used in various studies to determine the adaptation of a restoration. The first important step was established in 1989 [7] describing the marginal gap, absolute marginal gap, vertical marginal gap, horizontal marginal gap, as well as over- and under-extension (Figure 1).
Figure 1: Terminology for fit determination of restorations according to Holmeset., et al. [].
Poor marginal adaptation of restorations increases plaque retention and changes the composition of subgingival microflora, leading to periodontal disease [8]. Moreover, the micro leakage at the restoration-cavity interface can cause pulpal inflammation [9].
Clinical acceptability for marginal discrepancy
Several authors have attempted to determine the clinically acceptable marginal discrepancies that are not visible to the naked eye and undetectable with a sharp explorer. Christensen., et al. reported that the range of clinically acceptable marginal gap to be 34-119 µm for subgingival and 2-51 µm for supragingival margins [10]. However, McLean and von Fraunhofer investigated the cement film thickness by an in vivo technique and stated that a marginal discrepancy of 120 µm should be the limit of clinical acceptability [11].
Factors affecting marginal adaptation
Several factors can affect the marginal adaptation of dental crown such as the type of finish line, Geometry of Tooth preparation, Relief of the internal crown surface, the crown material, fabrication technique, porcelain veneering, cementation and aging.
Effect of finish line
Several studies observed better marginal adaptation for ceramic crowns with round shoulder finish lines followed by the deep chamfer ones which can be due to the larger volume of tooth structure in the round shoulder margins. Besides, the sharper borders, in deep chamfer margin, can be more easily damaged during finishing or sandblasting [12,13]. Conversely, others found no significant difference in marginal adaptation between the different finish lines tested [14].
Geometry of tooth preparation
Beuer and his colleagues found that increasing the convergence angle of the lateral walls of tooth preparation (between 4 and 10 degrees) can decrease the hydraulic pressure of luting agent and thus, allowing excess cement to discharge better [15].
Relief of the internal crown surface
The cement space or internal adaptation has the importance of preventing the cement layer from interfering with the crown’s complete seating [16]. This is of paramount importance particularly; for all-ceramic restorations, as ceramic is a brittle material and sensitive to tension [17]. Theoretically, the restoration needs a luting cement film of 20 to 40 µm and hence, setting the cementing gap thickness at 30um was found to decrease the seating discrepancy without compromising retention and resistance forms [10,18].
Effect of the crown material
Currently, there are several materials available than ever before for indirect restorations. They fall under the broad headings of all metal, ceramics, metal-ceramics and resin composites. A common perception is that the most reliable margins are achieved with metal rather than with ceramic. Whilst this contention is supported by some studies [19] others do not support it [20] Comparing ceramo-metal crowns to all ceramic crowns the former generally have better resistance to marginal distortion from repeated firings than the latter, which has implications for some all ceramic systems where the ceramic is applied incrementally [21]. However, some authors have reported that the marginal fit of ceramic restorations is based more on the processing technique than on the crystal type, amount, and distribution of the crystal within the glass matrix [22].
Effect of fabrication procedures
The ceramic coping fabrication procedures accounted for different marginal discrepancies of all- ceramic systems [23]. The all-ceramic systems can generate ceramic copings using either the lost wax technique (Castable ceramics and heat- pressed ceramics), the slip casting method (In-Ceram), or by machining (Manually Controlled System or Manual-aided Design/Manual-aided Manufacturing (MAD/MAM) Method and Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) Method) [24].
Castable ceramics
Holmes and his colleagues compared the marginal discrepancy of Castable ceramic restoration to that of cast gold crowns and found that the marginal adaptation of Castable crowns was better than that of gold ones and attributed this finding to the ceramming process which achieves volumetric contraction over the crown margins during changing the glass into dense glass ceramic [20]. However, the low strength of DICOR (only 120 MPa) limits its use [25]. The marginal gap for DICOR crowns was reported to be 48 ± 7 um [20].
Heat-Pressed ceramics
The use of Heat-Pressed Ceramics as reinforced cores combined the lost-wax technique with heat pressed technology. This technique has the advantage of reducing sintering shrinkage during ceramic firing and hence improving the marginal adaptation. The marginal fit for heat pressing ceramics was reported to range from 44 to 63 um [9,23].
Infiltrated Glass ceramics
Slip casting technology depends on infiltrating a molten lanthanum glass into the densely packed porous ceramic substructure. Thus, greatly increases the strength of the In-Ceram ceramics and offers good marginal integrity [26]. However, Careless shaving of excess slip material and adjustment of sintered framework at the marginal area could potentially lead to increased marginal discrepancy [27]. The reported marginal fit of infiltrated ceramics was found to range from 57 to 161 um [23].
Machinable ceramics
Copy-milled ceramics
The copy-milled ceramics were found by several authors to have an inferior marginal adaptation in relation to pressed and infiltrated ceramics. This may be due to variations in milling process and size of milling burs which may increase the cracks at the crown margins. Moreover, the coping is subjected to distortion and shrinkage during the sintering stage. Consequently have a negative effect on marginal adaptation [28,29].
Computer-aided Design/Computer-aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology
Basically all current CAD/CAM systems consist of three components
Digitizing or scanning unit which captures and records data about the oral environment (tooth preparation, adjacent teeth and occluding tooth geometry). There are two types of digital 3-D scanning devices for dental use:
Extra Oral Scanner: which can be either?
Optical: An optical reading of the die surface is possible with white, colored or laser-beam projection through the collection of three-dimensional structures in a ‘triangulation procedure’ as in Cercon® smart system, LAVATM and Everest® systems [15].
Mechanical: A ruby ball reads the master model of the prepared tooth on the die producing high scanning accuracy as in Procera® system. However, more expensive and time consuming compared to optical scanners [15].
Several studies have reported excellent marginal adaptation for CAD/CAM systems utilizing laser scanning, which accurately measures the margin line of the stone model [31]. On the other hand, Kokubo and his friends found that the diameter of the scanning probe tip in mechanical scanners cannot reach the deepest areas of the rounded shoulder, feather-edge finish lines or proximal retentive features more than 0.5 mm deep thus ,negatively affecting the accuracy of scanning process [32].
Intra Oral Scanner (optical only): An image of the prepared tooth and the anatomic structures of the adjacent teeth can be recorded intra orally providing a digital image as in Cerec 3D system [15].
Several authors have concluded that the CAD/CAM systems utilizing optical impression may experience problems with rounded edges due to the scanning resolution and positive error, which simulates peaks at the edges resulting in inferior marginal adaptation [32].
Software (CAD) Or Restoration Design: The data can be either translated to the milling device through (laboratory CAD/CAM) OR electronically sent to a compatible offsite milling center using the internet (Centralized CAD/CAM). According to Beuer., et al. (2009) Centralized fabrication performed significantly better marginal adaptation (51.7 μm) compared to laboratory CAD/CAM concept (56.0 μm) [33]. On the other hand, Beuer., et al. found that if the same scanning unit, software, and semi-sintered zirconia blanks were used in the fabrication of zirconia-based crown copings, both the laboratory and milling-center CAD/CAM systems achieved equal precision [15,17].
Sailer and his colleagues conducted a clinical study on a CAM only system (DCM prototype of Cercon, Degu Dent, Hanau, Germany) and reported poor marginal adaptation and a 22% rate of secondary caries after 5 years due to the complicated fabrication process required in the CAM only system (application of die spacer and waxing) which can cause distortion at the margin during removal of the wax pattern from the die. Additionally, scanning the internal aspects of wax pattern is difficult, thus; negatively affects the accuracy [34,33].
CAM Unit (Processing Devices): They can be classified according to the number of milling axes into three categories: 3-Axis milling devices, 4-Axis milling devices and 5-Axis milling devices. However, The accuracy of restoration does not necessarily increase with the number of processing axes as it depends much more on the result of digitalization, data processing and production process [17].
Factors affecting adaptation of restorations made out of CAD/CAM ceramics
Material condition during the milling procedure: which can be either; Semi-sintered or fully-sintered zirconia material? Karataşli and his friends found that the crowns made with fully-sintered zirconia blanks had an inferior marginal adaptation which can be attributed to the hard structure of zircon blanks, due to its full sintering, resulting in inconvenient milling procedures. Besides, during milling of dense sintered zirconia blocks, there is the danger of provoking unwanted surface and structural defects caused by diamond burs; these can negatively affect the marginal fit of crowns (35,36].
Chipping factor of the machinable materials: Tsitrou., et al. calculated the chipping factor of different machinable dental materials including a leucite reinforced glass ceramic (ProCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent); a feldspathic ceramic(VITA Mark II, VITA Zahnfabrik), a hybrid composite (Paradigm MZ100,3M ESPE dental products), and a lithium disilicate ceramic material (IPS e.max, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and found that the composite material had the lowest chipping factor (CF) while the lithium disilicate ceramic had the highest CF. the felds pathic and glass ceramic showed similar CF. concluding that the material with greater level of chipping during milling is likely to have a reduced quality of marginal fit because of greater damage to the margins [37].
Layered or Monolithic CAD/CAM fabricated crowns: the marginal discrepancies of monolithic crowns were significantly smaller than those of layered crowns due to the negative effect of firing procedures for veneering porcelains [38].
Size of milling burs: The internal cutting bur may be larger in diameter than some parts of the tooth preparation, such as the incisal edge. This may result in restorations with larger internal gaps [32].
The user's experience with the CAD system
Effect of porcelain veneering
Previous studies have shown that the fit of a ceramo-metal casting deteriorates during the firing of a porcelain veneer. The contributing factors remain uncertain however, certain causes have been suggested to be responsible for this distortion such as: porcelain contraction over the metal coping, tendency for spheroiding of porcelain margin, the contamination of porcelain to the inner surfaces of the metal framework, progressive reduction in the resilience of the metal caused by hardening of the porcelain upon cooling, design of the metal substructure (multi-walled metallic frameworks) and inadequate support of the metal framework during firing [39].
Effect of Underlying Cement
One problem recognized by clinicians is that the cementing medium may prevent the seating of the full crown, positioning it in hyper-occlusion and causing inadequately sealed margins [40]. The factors of: cement type, its viscosity and film thickness and cementation pressure were believed to have an effect on marginal seating [41].
  1. Giordano RA. “Dental ceramic restorative systems”. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry17.8 (1996): 779-794.
  2. Donovan TE and Prince J. “An analysis of margin configurations for metal-ceramic crowns”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 53.2 (1985): 153.
  3. Preston JD. “Rational approach to tooth preparation for ceramo-metal restorations”. Dental Clinics of North America 21.4 (1997): 683-698.
  4. John FJ., et al. “Johnston's Modern practice in fixed Prosthodontics”. 4th ed., Philadelphia, W. B. Saunders Company, (1986) pp. 142-157 and 302-312.
  5. Zitzmann NU., et al. “Clinical evaluation of Procera AllCeram crowns in the anterior and posterior regions”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics20.3 (2007): 239-241.
  6. May KB., et al. “Precision of fit: the Procera AllCeram crown”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 80.4 (1998): 394-404.
  7. Holmes JR., et al. “Considerations in measurement of marginal fit”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 62.4 (1989): 405-408.
  8. Lang NP., et al. “Clinical and microbiological effects of subgingival restorations with overhanging or clinically perfect margins”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 10.6 (1983): 563-578.
  9. Bindl A and Mormann WH. “Marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic CAD/CAM crown-copings on chamfer preparations”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 32.6 (2005): 441-447.
  10. Christensen GJ. “Marginal fit of gold inlay castings”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 16.2 (1966): 297-305.
  11. Mclean JW and Von Fraunhofer JA. “The estimation of cement film thickness by an in vivo technique. British Dental Journal 131.3 (1989): 107-111.
  12. Hoard RJ., et al. “Marginal discrepancy as related to margin design in porcelain-fused-to-Dicor restorations”. Oral Health 83.3 (1993): 15-18.
  13. Hilgert E., et al. “Evaluation of marginal adaptation of ceramic crowns depending on the marginal design and the addition of ceramic”. Brazilian Journal of Oral Sciences 3.11 (2004): 619-623.
  14. Kay GW., et al. “Factors affecting the seating and fit of complete crowns: a computer simulation study”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry55.1 (1986): 13-18.
  15. Beuer F., et al. “Effect of preparation angles on the precision of zirconia crown copings fabricated by CAD/CAM system”. Dental Materials Journal 27.6 (2008): 814-820.
  16. Psillakis JJ., et al. “Effect of evaporation and mixing technique on die spacer thickness: a preliminary study”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 85.1 (2001): 82-87.
  17. Beuer F., et al. “Marginal and internal fit of zirconia based fixed dental prostheses fabricated with different concepts”. Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry 2 (2010): 5-11.
  18. Nakamura T., et al. “Marginal and internal fit of Cerec 3 CAD/CAM all-ceramic crowns”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics 16.3 (2003): 244-248.
  19. Morris HF. “Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of cast ceramic, porcelain-shoulder, and cast metal full crown margins”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry67.2 (1992): 198-203.
  20. Holmes JR., et al. “Marginal fit of castable ceramic crowns”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 67.5 (1992): 594-599.
  21. Castellani D., et al. “Thermal distortion of different materials in crown construction”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 72.4 (1994): 360-366.
  22. Van Dijken JW., et al. “Restorations with extensive dentin/enamel-bonded ceramic coverage. A 5-year follow-up”. European Journal of Oral Sciences 109.4 (2001): 222-229.
  23. Sulaiman F., et al. “A comparison of the marginal fit of In-Ceram, IPS Empress, and Procera crowns”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics 10.5 (1997): 478-484.
  24. Quintas AF., et al. “Vertical marginal discrepancy of ceramic copings with different ceramic materials, finish lines, and luting agents: an in vitro evaluation”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 92.3 (2004): 250-257.
  25. Mclean JW. Evolution of dental ceramics in the twentieth century”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 85.1 (2001): 61-66.
  26. Bindl A., et al. “Full-ceramic CAD/CIM anterior crowns and copings”. International Journal of Computerized Dentistry 2.2 (1999): 97-111.
  27. Grey NJ., et al.In vitro comparison of conventional crowns and a new all-ceramic system”. Journal of Dentistry 21.1 (1993): 47-51.
  28. Beschnidt SM and Strub JR. “Evaluation of the marginal accuracy of different all-ceramic crown systems after simulation in the artificial mouth”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 26.7 (1999): 582-593.
  29. Freedman M., et al. “Single unit CAD/DAM restorations: a literature review”. Journal of the Irish Dental Association 53.1 (2007): 38-45.
  30. Kuni J., et al. “Effect of sintering on the marginal and internal fit of CAD/CAM-fabricated zirconia frameworks”. Dental Materials Journal 26.6 (2007): 820-826.
  31. Kokubo Y., et al. “Clinical marginal and internal gaps of Procera AllCeram crowns”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 32.7 (2005): 526-530.
  32. Reich S., et al. “Clinical fit of all-ceramic three-unit fixed partial dentures, generated with three different CAD/CAM systems”. European Journal of Oral Sciences 113.2 (2005): 174-179.
  33. Beuer F., et al. “Precision of fit: zirconia three-unit fixed dental prostheses”. Clinical Oral Investigations 13.3 (2009): 343-349.
  34. Sailer I., et al. “Five-year clinical results of zirconia frameworks for posterior fixed partial dentures”. The International Journal of Prosthodontics 20.4 (2007): 383-388.
  35. Karatasli O., et al. “Comparison of the marginal fit of different coping materials and designs produced by computer aided manufacturing systems”. Dental Materials Journal 30.1 (2011): 97-102.
  36. Reich S., et al. “Clinical fit of four-unit zirconia posterior fixed dental prostheses”. European Journal of Oral Sciences 116.6 (2008): 579-584.
  37. Tsitrou EA., et al. “Brittleness index of machinable dental materials and its relation to the marginal chipping factor”. Journal of Dentistry 35.12 (2007): 897-902.
  38. Lee KB., et al. “Marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated with two different CAD/CAM systems”. Dental Materials Journal 27.3 (2008): 422-426.
  39. Van Rensburg F and Strating H. “Evaluation of the marginal integrity of ceramo-metal restorations: Part II”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 52.2 (1984): 210-214.
  40. Gavelis JR., et al. “The effect of various finish line preparations on the marginal seal and occlusal seat of full crown preparations”. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 45.2 (1981): 138-145.
  41. Good ML., et al. “Quantification of all-ceramic crown margin surface profile from try-in to 1-week post-cementation”. Journal of Dentistry 37.1 (2009): 65-75.
Copyright: © 2015 RA El-Dessouky. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 15, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to