Review Article
Volume 1 Issue 5 - 2015
Computer Aided Technology in Complete Denture Construction between Trials and Application
Abdel Salam Ezzat1,2*
1 Department of Prosthodontics, Alexandria University, Egypt
2 Department of Prosthodontics, King Abdel Aziz University, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Abdel Salam Ezzat, Department of Prosthodontics, Alexandria University, Egypt, King Abdel Aziz University, Saudi Arabia.
Received: May 17, 2015; Published: June 25, 2015
Citation: Abdel Salam Ezzat. “Computer Aided Technology in Complete Denture Construction between Trials and Application”. EC Dental Science 1.5 (2015): 202-204.
The construction of complete dentures by the conventional method needs many clinical and laboratory steps in the dental office and the dental laboratory.
The accuracy of fit of these dentures was mater of discussions along the past many years. The use of CAD / CAM nowadays said to have the ability to make the process simpler and solve the associated problems with the conventional method. The purpose of this historical dental review is to give junior researchers an idea about this new technology and to analyze the literature on CAD/CAM technology.
Keywords: CAD/CAM: Conventional complete denture; MMR: maxillo mandibular relations; AMD: anatomical measuring device; OVD: occlusal vertical dimension; CR: centric relation; edentulism; CT: Cone beam; MO: micro-organisms
Literature Review
The acronym CAD means computer aided design Software to determine the dimensions of an object, while The CAM program directs the construction process. In 1994, Maeda., et al. [1] are credited with the first published scientific report on the concept of using, computer-aided technology to fabricate complete dentures. The CAD/CAM technology used before for construction of on lays, inlays, crowns & fixed bridges and partial dentures but not in complete denture constructions [1,2].
Later on several factors governed the extend and spread of this technology in complete dentures construction; [3] stated that, the increased aging population in US, the increased demands of complete dentures are two main factors. The reduced number of dental laboratory technician in US [4,5] was another factor plus the easily duplication of complete dentures due to the stored digital data and ability of better quality control with this technology [5].
In 1997, Kawahata., et al. [6], explored the concept of digitally duplicating Existing dentures and milling them by using a CNC milling machine (computerized numerical control) which is a machine uses images from a digital file to create an object by machining (cutting/milling) to remove material and achieve the desired geometry. In another clinical study conducted by Kanazawa., et al. [7], a cone beam (CT) was used to measure the complete denture and the artificial teeth. The 3D complete denture image was fabricated using 3D CAD software; also the artificial teeth were factored out and a 3D denture base image was obtained. An acrylic resin block is then cut to fabricate an acrylic complete denture base. The artificial teeth were bonded to the base using resin cement. They concluded that, there was slight deviation between the master 3D denture and the 3D data of the fabricated acrylic denture.
Goodacre., et al. [8] mentioned, it is anticipated the same for this technology the clinical impression procedures described in this article recorded the morphology of the intaglio and cameo surfaces of complete denture bases and also identifies muscular and phonetic locations for the placement of prosthetic denture teeth. This information can then be scanned, the teeth and base forms virtually established, and the resulting data exported to a milling machine for fabrication of the denture bases. In addition to the development of clinical procedures that record the required morphology, the prototype 3D Tooth Arrangement Program described in this article indicates that CAD programs can be developed whereby prosthetic teeth are arranged virtually as part of the CAD/CAM fabrication of complete dentures. In 2013 Mathew T., et al. [9]   explored the commercial fabrication systems of CAD/CAM complete denture Ava Dent and Dentca* systems and concluded that Ava Dent uses laser scanning and computer technology. Teeth are arranged and bases formed using proprietary software. The bases are milled from pre-polymerized pucks of resin. Dentca uses computer software to produce virtual maxillary and mandibular edentulous ridges, arrange the teeth and form bases. The dentures are fabricated using conventional processing technique. In 2013, systematic review conducted by Mathew., et al.[9] using Pubmed search strategy concludes that both commercial manufacturing systems allow fabrication of complete dentures in two clinical appointments. The first clinical appointment: Systematic data gathering impressions, occlusal vertical dimension (OVD), maxilla mandibular relationships (MMR) and tooth selection. The second appointment: Denture insertion and adjustments. In 2014, Infante., et al. [10] proposed a technique to fabricate CAD/CAM complete denture using AMD (anatomic measuring device) to record OVD (occlusal vertical Dimension), CR (centric relation) and lip support flowed by scanning maxillary and mandibular impressions then milling of denture base by using a preformed cylinder of acrylic resin followed by chemically bonding of denture teeth into the base.
Discussing the results of these most recent articles revealed that:
A complete digital impression of the edentulous arches as performed has not yet been researched. The systematic review did not identify any case reports or clinical trials on dentures which were fabricated with computer-aided technology.
Most articles described unique theoretical constructs for the production of a prototype denture and it was not clear whether the denture was used for treatment purposes or not.
Prospective clinical trials are necessary to validate this technique. This could affect dental educations, patients care, researches and public health worldwide [5]. Further modifications are needed in processing the three dimensions data to avoid teeth deviation on constructing dentures by CAD/CAM technology. Most of these studies proved that it is possible to fabricate complete denture by this new technology but there is slight difference between prosthetic teeth and sockets on denture base which might cause deviation, further modifications are needed in processing the three dimensions data [7].
Comparing between the traditional and the CAD/CAM technology in complete denture construction found in the dental literatures, The main disadvantages in dentures constructed by traditional method is the lack of adaptation (intimate fit) of the denture base with the underlying tissues due to the polymerization shrinkage [5] the frequent clinical visits & laboratory steps and the inability to create optimal duplicate complete dentures, while the main advantages of the new CAD/CAM technology is the ease obtaining of duplicate prosthesis, the two clinical visits, the minimal porosity in the finished dentures which reduces the presence of MO (micro-organisms) especially Candida Albicans and an optimal occlusal scheme can be developed with minimal occlusal adjustment [5].
The most obvious of this technology is lack of try in stage which is very essential for denture success.
Denture constructed by CAD/CAM method needs further clinical evaluations.
Modifications are needed in processing the three dimensions data.
Further researches on edentulism can be standardized in the coming future.
  1. Maeda Y., et al. “A CAD/CAM system for removable denture. Part 1 fabrication of complete dentures”. International Journal of Prosthodontics 7.1 (1994): 17-21.
  2. Inokoshia M., et al. “Evaluation of a complete denture trial method applying rapid prototyping”. DentalMaterials Journal 31.1 (2012): 40-46.
  3. Douglas CW., et al. “Will there be a need for complete dentures in the united states in 2020?” Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 87.1 (2002): 5-8.
  4. Hill EE and Breeding LC. “Who is teaching the undergraduate prosthodontics in the US dental schools, 2007?” Journal of Prosthodontics 18.2 (2009): 195-198.
  5. Bidra AS., et al. “Computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures: Systematic review of historical background, current status, and future perspectives”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 109.6 (2013): 361-366.
  6. Kawahata N., et al. “Trial of duplication procedure for complete dentures by CAD/CAM”. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 24.7 (1997): 540-548.
  7. Kanazawa M., et al. “Trial of a CAD/CAM system for fabricating complete dentures”. Dental Materials Journal 30.1 (2011): 93-96.    
  8. Goodacre CJ., et al. “CAD/CAM fabricated complete dentures: Concepts and clinical methods of obtaining required morphological data”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 107.1 (2012): 34-46.
  9. Mathew T., et al. “CAD/CAM Complete denture: A Review of tow commercial fabricating system”. Journal of California Dental Association 41.6 (2013): 407-416.
  10. Infante L., et al. “Fabricating complete dentures with CAD/CAM technology”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 111.5 (2014): 351-355.
  11. *Dentca-CAD/CAM Denture; Dentca Inc. Available at:
  12. *Ava Dent Digital Dentures; Global Dental Science LLC. Available at:
Copyright: © 2015 Abdel Salam Ezzat. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

February Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the February issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before February 17, 2023.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.