Case Report
Volume 1 Issue 2 - 2015
CBCT Finding of Double Bifid Inferior Alveolar Canals: Literature Review and Case Report
Alexandre Khairallah*
Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Imaging, Lebanese University, Lebanon
*Corresponding Author: Alexandre Khairallah, Department of Oral and Maxillo-Facial Imaging, Lebanese University, Lebanon.
Received: February 14, 2015; Published: February 28, 2015
Citation: Rafaella Monteiro Oliveira Cid., et al. “Comparative Analysis of Screw Loosening in Titanium and Zirconia Abutments-An In vitro Study”. EC Dental Science 1.2 (2015): 83-89.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to describe a case of a right and left bifid mandibular canals identified using cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT) imaging techniques and to discuss how frequently this variation occurs.
Methods: A systematic review of the literature is presented and the study methods are discussed. A case of a double bifid mandibular canal discovered by cone beam CT is presented. They were identified during a bilateral pre-implant CBCT analyses.
Results: Mandibular canals can be detected on two dimensional radiographs. However, as confusion is possible when using these imaging modalities, it is only with tomographic imaging that some of these distinctive features can be identified. The case of left and right bifid mandibular canals revealed by CBCT is the only one reported in the literature to date using this means of identification.
Conclusion: The presence of bifid mandibular canals is very rare, yet it is important to recognize this anatomical variation in any surgical procedures involving the lower jaw and its presence can only be confirmed by volumetric imaging.
Keywords: Bifid; Mandibular canal; Cone beam CT
The mandibular canal is usually a unique channel, running in the mandibular bony tissue, forming an upward concave curve. It encloses the lower alveolar neurovascular bundle, it begins posteriorly at the level of the mandibular foramen, a part of it, while exiting at the level of the mental foramen situated in most cases between the two roots of the premolars, innervates the soft tissues the another part continues its way anteriorly to form the incisive canal.. When examined in section it can vary in shape, being sometimes oval, circular or pyriform [1,2].
In dental imaging, its appearance has been described as a radiolucent ribbon between two radio-opaque lines” [3] in certain cases, however, the presence of a second mandibular canal has been revealed. Although anatomy textbooks give few details about this type of variation, there are published case reports that provide further information about these anatomical configurations. Identifying these structures enables us to prevent potential complications that can sometimes have very serious consequences during surgical procedures in the mandibular region.
Review of the Literature
The numerous cases reported in the literature have been observed using different imaging methods: panoramic radiographs, panoramic images in association with lateral cephalometric radiographs and three dimensional imaging.
The first clear case is published in 1973 [4]. Duplication was unilateral and was identified on a panoramic radiograph. Due to the superimposition of the different structures, the authors did not rule out the possibility of a deep mylohyoid groove on the medial mandibular surface which can be confused with a second mandibular canal. In a retrospective study of 3612 panoramic radiographs, Nortje et al. [5] studied 33 cases of bifid mandibular canals, 20 bilateral and 13 unilateral, which were classified into three types, then into four when a new canal configuration was found [6]. Driscoll [7] and later Wyatt [8] reported two new unilateral cases based only on panoramic radiographs. Other cases have been published, but based on panoramic radiographs in association with lateral cephalometric radiographs to confirm observations.
A case of unilateral bifid mandibular canal was also published by Paterson in 1973 [9], where the separation into two branches occurred in the ramus and the body of the lower jaw. The authors identified two mental foramina. In order to confirm their findings, they carried out a lateral projection radiograph of the skull.
Mader and Konzelman [10] reported a unilateral case and, in their words, eliminated the possible presence of artifacts by taking a new panoramic image and a lateral skull view.
In 1988, Strider [11] added a bilateral case identified during an intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy where lateral oblique radiographs of the mandible showed an image of double mandibular canals.
Quattrone et al. [12] discovered a case of a double bilateral mandibular canal, but they present only axial tomodensitometric incidences that are not very demonstrative.
In 1993, Meoli et al. [13] published a more illustrative case of a double foramen mental is which was unilateral, but the division at the level of the mandibular canal occurred only in the region close to these foramina, hence along a very short course. Berberi et al. [14] and later Claeys et al. [15] published some very well illustrated cases using CT scans of double mandibular canals with two distinct mental foramina. In our opinion, these last two publications constitute the only established cases of this anomaly. In 2000, Kaufman et al. [16] for their part, presented images of bilateral accessory mandibular canals. In all probability, the term “accessory” was chosen by the authors to describe these canals because of their very short length (about 15 mm). Auluck et al. [17] have described the case of a triple mandibular canal in a 20-year-old patient, where the third branch perforated the lingual cortex in the retromolar area.
The discovery of these anatomical particularities has led practitioners or researchers to study their frequency. All such research studies have been carried out on panoramic radiographs. Between 1977 and 2003, six publications were found where the frequency of the occurrence of double mandibular canals ranging between 0.08% and 8.3%. Given such a disparity in results, one must be skeptical as to the type of study used (Table 1).
Year Author Number of Cases Number/Type: Unilateral (U) Bilateral (B) Means of Identification Further Investigations Super-Imposition of Mylohyoide Groove
1973 Kiersch 1 1/U Panoramic Non Possible
1973 Paterson 1 1/U Panoramic Lateral projection Not possible
1977 Nortje 33 13/U   20/B Panoramic Non Possible
1981 Mader/Konzelman 1 1/U Panoramic Panoramic + lateral projection Not possible
1988 Strider 1 1/B Lateral projection Vertical ramus Osteotomy Not possible
1989 Quattrone 1 2/B Axial tomodensitometry   Possible
1996 Driscoll 2 2/U Panoramic Non Possible
1996 Wyatt 2 2/U Panoramic Non Possible
1993 Meoli 1 1/U near double mental foramen Para-axial Tomography   Not possible
1994 Berbery/Cleys 2 1/U near double mental foramen Different Tomodensitometric cuts   Not possible
2000 Kauffman 1 1/short B Panoramic   Possible
2005 Auluck 1 Triple Panoramic    
Table 1: Classification of the founding of the bifidity of the Inferior alveolar canal.
From studies on a large number of occurrences on two dimensional imaging and especially the panoramic images, Nortje et al. [5] was able to classify the bifidity of the inferior alveolar canal by describing three configurations of these canals then a fourth type 6 was later added. This classification was later confirmed by Heasman [18]. In 1985, Langlais et al. [19] established a system of classification into four groups according to the anatomical parameters. They stressed that the mandibular canals could present small and as yet unlisted supplementary accessory canals.
Case Report
The case reported here was prescribed for pre-implant analyses. A 50-year-old male was referred to the maxillo-facial imaging department of the dental school at the Lebanese University for a pre-implant evaluation. The scan was performed using an Icat®CBCT scanner (Imaging sciences international-Hatfield, United States of America) operated at 120 kVp and 24 mA with a resolution of 0.4 voxel.
Figure 1: Reconstructed axial, coronal and sagittal cuts (MPR).

Figure 2: Panorexplanning line on the axial cut.

Figure 3: Panorex reconstruction showing the two accessory canals.

Figure 4a: Cropped panorex and cross-sectional image showing the right accessory canal.

Figure 4b: Cropped panorex and cross-sectional image showing the left accessory canal.

Figure 5: Frontal cut showing the double left mental foramen.
Reconstructed axial, coronal and sagittal cuts (MPR) were automatically reconstructed by the software (Icat vision®-Imaging sciences international) (Figure 1). A planning line, along the centerline of the mandibular jaw arch, was drawn on the axial cut that shows the major part of the inferior alveolar canal (Figure 2). A Panorex “panoramic reconstruction” was automatically generated by the software (Figure 3) and cross-sectional images (slice thickness 0.4 mm) were also reconstructed (Icat vision®-Imaging sciences international) (Figure 3 and 4).
Bilateral divisions of the mandibular canal were detected on the right and left-hand side at the level of the ramus. Thesebifurcations derive from the originaltruncus (Figure 3). The right branch ends in the bone trabeculaeat the level of the first molar region and the left one continues more anteriorly to the level of the second premolar (Figure 4). An accessory left mental foramen is also noted on a cross-sectional cut. This is due to the splitting of the primary inferior alveolar canal in two parts before exiting (Figure 5).
The bifid mandibular canals have been variously described in the literature’s “occasionally present”, [5] “a variation”, [6] “not a rare finding”, [20] “not an infrequent occurrence”, or “a fairly common anomaly” [21]. For other authors, it is an “abnormality”, [7] an “anomaly”, an “aberrancy” [11], or an “oddity” [10]. Studies based on volumetric imaging, however, are all in agreement in describing these cases as “rare”, or even as “anomalies”[13,15].
The appearance of this bifidity can be explained by different causes. First we cannot dismiss a possible relationship with a general pathology, a case associated with Down’s syndrome was observed in a 29-year old patient [10]. Second according to Chavez-Lomeli et al. [22] the inferior alveolar nerve is formed during embryonic development to innervate each of the three groups of mandibular teeth, and this development is followed by the fusing of the nerves. This hypothesis could explain the presence of a duplication of the mandibular canal or a triple mandibular canal as observed by Auluck et al. [17] after an incomplete fusion of the three nerves. The presence of a triplemandibular canal can also be explained if it is assumed to Bea third branch located on the mandibular ramus which does not emerge at a mental foramen [23].
According to the literature, the frequency of the bifid mandibular canals as seen on two-dimensional imaging appears to range from 0.08% [20] to 8.3% [8]. This suggests that there are major disparities in existing studies. All the studies of frequency are based on panoramic images which tend to overestimate the presence of these duplications in part due to the unreliability of panoramic radiographs for this type of findings and on the other part due to the variations in the appearance of the bifidity. The reason of the high frequency can also be attributed to the superimposition of different structures on 2D imaging. The presence of a deep mylohyoid groove can account for the characteristic images found on panoramic radiographs [4,9,24]. This possibility has been confirmed by Sanch is [25], who specifies that false double canals can be observed on two-dimensional radiographs due to the impression of the mylohyoid nerve on the medial surface of the mandible as it turns towards the floor of the mouth, or to the insertion of the mylohyoid muscle on the mandibularmedial surface on the mylohyoid line, all of which can generate images which imitate the presence of a bifurcation of the mandibular canal. Lastly, images of lingual vascular canals can also be confused with mandibular canals [26].
The reliability and precision of three dimensional imaging over two-dimensional ones have been emphasized in several studies including those by Klinge [27]. With the various images provided by the three dimensional imaging, there was sufficient information to identify the double mandibular canals. On the cross-sectional slices, they appeared as rounded radiolucent images edged by a narrow radio-opaque border, easily differentiated from the bone and any possible periapicallesion. In 2003, while conducting a study on 2012 panoramic radiographs, Sanch is [25] identified seven double mandibularcanals (0.35%), but after carrying out a tomodensitometricexamination he found only two cases of double canals. This confirms the potential for error inherent in reading panoramic images in particular, and two-dimensional images in general. In a study of 500 subjects based on periapical radiographs of themandibular zone of the mental foramen, Sweet [28] stated that “when doing work of this nature, there is a tendency to see that which does not exist” and “the mandibularcanal can be projected by the imagination into the radiographs unless one is very careful”.
If bifid mandibular canals are not identified prior to an invasive act there is a possibility of nerve damaged, or hemorrhages that may impede the surgeon’s visibility. There is also an increased potential for the formation of fibrous tissues in a site that is in contact with an implant. Non-identification may also account for certain failures in anesthesia.
In our opinion, retrospective studies of frequency based on panoramic radiographs have tended to overestimate the prevalence of these anatomical anomalies, as there is always a risk that one tends to see whatever one is looking for. A clinical study based on three-dimensional images Dentascan® or CBCT constitutes the only means of providing an irrefutable diagnosis as to the existence of double mandibular canals.
Our new case of a double bifid mandibular canal and a double left mental foramen confirm the very rare nature of these duplications.
By pinpointing these rare anatomical variations, it is possible to take the necessary precautions during implant surgery and avoid damaging these neurovascular structures.
  1. Olivier E. “Le canal dentaire inferieur et son nerf chez l’adulte”. Ann Anat Path 4 (1927): 975-987.
  2. Olivier E. “The inferior dental canal and its nerve in the adult”. British Dental Journal 49 (1928): 356-358.
  3. Worth HM. “Normal radiographic appearances of the teeth and jaws and variations within the normal”. Principles and practice of oral radiologic interpretation. Chicago, IL: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc. (1963): 15-79.
  4. Kiersch TA, and Jordan JE. “Duplication of the mandibular canal”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology 35.1 (1973): 133-134.
  5. Nortje CJ, et al. “Variations in the normal anatomy of the inferior dental (mandibular) canal: a retrospective study of panoramic radiographs from 3612 routine dental patients. British Journal of Oral Surgery 15.1 (1977): 55-63.
  6. Nortje CJ., et al. “The radiographic appearance of the inferior dental canal: an additional variation”. The British Journal of Oral Surgery 15.2 (1977): 171-172.
  7. Driscoll CF. “Bifid mandibular canal”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 70.6 (1990): 807.
  8. Wyatt W. “Accessory mandibular canal: literature review and presentation of an additional variant”. Quintessence international 27.2 (1996): 111-113.
  9. Patterson JE and Funke FW. “Bifid inferior alveolar canal”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology 36.2 (1973): 287-288.
  10. Mader CL, and Konzelman JL. “Branching mandibular canal”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology 51.3 (1981): 332.
  11. Strider JW. “Anomaly of the mandibular canal”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology 65.3 (1988): 376-377.
  12. Quattrone G., et al. “Canale mandibular ebifidolaterale Presentazione di uncaso”. Minerva Stomatologica 38 (1989): 1183-1185.
  13. Meoli S., et al. “Un raro caso di doppio foromentoniero. Imaging contomografia computerizzata”. La radiologia medica 85 (1993): 854-857.
  14. Berberi  A., et al.“Duplicated mandibular canal: report of a case”. Quintessence international 25.4 (1994): 277-281.
  15. Claeys V, and Wackens G. “Bifid mandibular canal: literature review andcase report”. Dento maxilla facial radiology 34.1 (2005): 55-58.
  16. Kaufman E., et al. “Bilateral mandibular accessoryforamina and canals: a case report and review of the literature”. Dento maxilla facial radiology 29.3 (2000): 170-175.
  17. Auluck A., et al. “Anatomical variations indeveloping mandibular nerve canal: a report of three cases”. Neuroanatomy 4 (2005): 28-30.
  18. Heasman PA. “Variation in the position of the inferior dental canal andits significance to restorative dentistry”. Journal of Dentistry 16.1 (1988): 36-39.
  19. Langlais RP., et al. “Bifid mandibular canals inpanoramic radiographs”. Journal of the American Dental Association 110.6 (1985): 923-926.
  20. Grover PS, and Lorton L. “Bifid mandibular nerve as a possible cause ofinadequate anesthesia in the mandible. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 41.3 (1983): 177-179.
  21. Durst JH, and Snow JE. “Multiple mandibular canals: oddities or fairlycommon anomalies?” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, and Oral Pathology49.3 (1980): 272-273.
  22. Chavez-Lomeli ME., et al. “The humanmandibular canal arises from three separate canals innervatingdifferent tooth groups”. Journal of Dental Research 75.8 (1996): 1540-1544.
  23. Auluck A and Pai KM. “Trifid mandibular nerve canal”. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology 34.4 (2005): 259 (letter).
  24. Anderson LC., et al. “A review of the intraosseouscourse of the nerves of the mandible”. The Journal of Oral Implantology 17.4 (1991): 394-403.
  25. Sanchis JM, et al. “Bifid Mandibular Canal”. Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 61 (2003): 422-424.
  26. Gahleitner A., et al. “Lingual vascular canals of the mandible:evaluation with dental CT”. Radiology 220.1 (2001): 186-189.
  27. Klinge B., et al. “Location of the mandibular canal:comparison of macroscopic findings, conventional radiography, andcomputed tomography”. The International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants4. (1989): 327-332.
  28. Sweet APS. “A statistical analysis of the incidence of nutrient channels and foramina in five hundred periapical full-mouth radiodontic examinations”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Oral Surgery 28.7 (1942): 427-442.
Copyright: © 2015 Alexandre Khairallah. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 15, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to