Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 2 - 2020
Contemporary Understanding of Colors in Aesthetic Dentistry: Review
Nagy Abdulsamee1* and Passant Nagi2
1Consultant Prosthodontics and Head of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine and Surgery, Modern University for Technology and Information, Egypt
2Lecturer of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine and Surgery, Cairo University, Egypt
*Corresponding Author: Nagy Abdulsamee, Consultant Prosthodontics and Head of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine and Surgery, Modern University for Technology and Information, Egypt.
Received: November 18, 2019; Published: January 11, 2020


One of the most challenging procedures in restorative dentistry is to closely matching natural teeth with an artificial restoration. Color and shape of natural teeth vary greatly providing more information about the background and personality of our patients. The final goal of dentistry is to restore patient’s unique characteristics or to replace them with alternatives. Learning the language of color and light characteristics provides the ability to assess and properly communicate information to laboratory technician. This help the technician duplicating what has been distinguished, understood, and communicated to ceramic, composite filing or artificial teeth in the shade matching of natural dentition.

Anterior restorations that gave esthetic satisfaction to both dentist and patient must acquire as much optical properties as natural dentition; color, gloss, opalescence, fluorescence, all these physical optical properties are mandatory to consider. Better understanding and some strategies for best assessing of what happens when incident light interacts with teeth surface will be given to each individual of the dental profession helping them in duplicating the best of restoration color and aesthetics.

Keywords: Illuminant; Observer; Objects; Color; Hue; Chroma; Value; Colorimeter; Metamerism; Opalescence; Counter-Opalescence; Fluorescence; Gloss


  1. Knispel G. “Factors affecting the process of color matching restorative materials to natural teeth”. Quintessence International 22.7 (1991): 525-531.
  2. Chu SJ., et al. “Fundamentals of color: shade matching and communication in esthetic dentistry”. Quintessence Publishing USA (2004): 37. 
  3. Sikri VK. "Color: Implications in dentistry". Journal of Conservative Dentistry 13.4 (2010): 249-255. 
  4. Blank JT. “Creating translucent edge effects and maverick internal tints using microhybrid resin”. Practical Procedures and Aesthetic Dentistry 18.2 (2006): 131-136.
  5. Franco EB., et al. “Reproducing the natural aspects of dental tissues with resin composites in proximo-incisal restorations”. Quintessence International 38 (2007): 505.
  6. Fondriest J. “Shade matching in restorative dentistry: the science and strategies”. International Journal of Periodontics and Restorative Dentistry 23.5 (2003): 467-479.
  7. Joiner A. “Tooth color: a review of the literature”. Journal of Dentistry 1 (2004): 3-12.
  8. Manappallil JJ. “Basic Dental Materials”. Jaypee Brothers (2010): 19-22. 
  9. Stephen J. “Precision shade technology: Contemporary strategies in shade selection”. Practical Procedures and Aesthetic Dentistry 14 (2002): 79-83.
  10. Newton I. Optiks. London, England: Innys (1730). 
  11. Comission Internationale de L’Eclairage. Colorimetry, official recommendations of the international commission on illumination. Paris: Bureau Central de La CIE. Publication CIE No. 15 (1971).
  12. Lee YK., et al. “Metameric effect between resin composite and dentin”. Dental Materials 21.10 (2005): 971-976. 
  13. Kim SH., et al. “Metameric effect between dental porcelain and porcelain repairing resin composite”. Dental Materials 23.3 (2007): 374-379.
  14. Boksman L. “Shade selection accuracy and reproducibility”. Ontario Dentist Journal (2007): 24-27.
  15. Billmeyer and Saltzman’s principles of color technology. 3rd edition. New York: John Wiley Sons (2000).
  16. Sakaguchi RL and Powers JM. “Craig’s Restorative Dental Materials”. 13th ed Elsiever Mosby (2012): 55-57. 
  17. Baltzer A and Jinoian VK. “Determination of tooth colors”. Quintessenz Zahntechnik 30 (2004): 726-740. 
  18. Egger B. Natural Color Concept: A Systematic Approach to Visual Shade Selection. QDT (2003).
  19. Berns RS. Billmeyer and Saltzman’s principles of color technology, 3rd edition, New York, John Wiley (2000). 
  20. Ritter A V., et al. “Sturdevant’s Art and Science of Operative Dentistry: Dental Caries: Etiology, Clinical Characteristics, Risk Assessment, and Management”. Elsevier Inc 7th edition (2019): 200-202.
  21. Brewer JD., et al. “Advances in color matching”. Dental Clinics of North America 48 (2004): 341-358. 
  22. Overheim D. “Light and Color”. (New York: John Wiley) (1982). 
  23. Preston JD., et al. “Light and lighting in the dental office”. Dental Clinics of North America 22 (1978): 431-451. 
  24. Pensler AV. “Shade selection: Problems and solutions”. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 19 (1998): 387-396.
  25. Miller LL. “Esthetic dentistry development program”. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry 6 (1994): 47-60. 
  26. Pensler AV. “Photography in the dental practice”. Quintessence Dental Technology 14 (1983): 855-858.
  27. Goldstep F and Freedman G. “Contemporary Esthetic Dentistry Chapter 7”. Understanding and Manipulating Color Mosby Inc (2011): 131-180.
  28. Vadher R., et al. “Basics of Color in Dentistry: A Review”. Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences 13.9 (2014): 78-85.
  29. Della Bona A., et al. “Visual and instrumental agreement in dental shade selection: Three distinct observer populations and shade matching protocols”. Dental Material 25 (2009): 276‑281. 
  30. Primus CM., et al. “Opalescence of dental porcelains enamels”. Quintessence International 36 (2002): 439-449.
  31. Sensi L., et al. “Reproducing opalescent and counter-opalescent effects with direct resin composites”. Quintessence of Dental Technology (2007): 1-10.
  32. Schmeling M., et al. “Opalescence of bleached teeth”. Journal of Dentistry 40.1 (2012): e35-39. 
  33. Duarte JRS. “Opalescence: the key to natural esthetics”. Quintessence of Dental Technology (2007): 7-20.
  34. Yamamoto M. “A newly developed ‘‘Opal’’ ceramic and its clinical use, with special attention to its relative refractive index”. Quintessence of Dental Technology (1989): 9-33. 
  35. Ward MT., et al. “Surface roughness of opalescent porcelains after polishing”. Operative Dentistry 20 (1995): 106-110. 
  36. Nassau K. Color for science, art and technology. 1st edition. Amsterdam: Elsevier (1998). 
  37. McLaren E. “Luminescent veneers”. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry 9 (1997): 3-12.
  38. Monsengo G., et al. “Fluorescence of dental porcelains”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 69 (1993): 106-113.
  39. Mehta A. “Animation for the principle of fluorescence and UV light absorbance”. PharmaXChange (2013). 
  40. Gamborena I and Blatz M. “Fluorescence mimicking nature for ultimate esthetics in implant dentistry”. Quintessence of Dental Technology (2011): 216. 
  41. Lee YK., et al. “Effect of surface sealant and staining on the fluorescence of resin composites”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 93 (2005): 260-266.
  42. Orban BJ. “Oral Histology and Embryology 6th edition”. (St Louis: Mosby) (1976).
  43. McLaren E. “The 3D-master shade-matching system and the skeleton buildup technique: Science meets art and intuition”. Quintessence of Dental Technology 22 (1999): 55-68.
  44. Paravina RD and Powers JM. “Esthetic color training in dentistry” (2004). 
  45. Obregon A., et al. “Effects of opaque and porcelain surface texture on the color of ceramometal restorations”. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry 46.3 (1981): 330-340.
Citation: Nagy Abdulsamee and Passant Nagi. “Contemporary Understanding of Colors in Aesthetic Dentistry: Review”. EC Dental Science 19.2 (2020): 01-18.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for January Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the January issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 03, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to