Research Article
Volume 20 Issue 12 - 2021
The Use of Clinical Photography by Dental Students and Practitioners in Saudi Arabia

Raghad Alharbi1*, Lujain Joharji2, Mayasim Alahmadi1, Maram Alzaidi3, Shaymaa Alamoudi4, Waleed Bin Mahfouz5, Malak Al-harbi6 and Nada Alsohaimi6

1General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Al-baha, Saudi Arabia
2General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
3General Dentist, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Taif, Saudi Arabia
5General Dentist, Ibn Sina National College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
6Dental Intern, Vision Colleges, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Raghad Alharbi, General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia.
Received: November 03, 2021; Published: November 29, 2021


Introduction: The utilization of digital photography by dentists has increased over the past decade.

Aim: The current study aimed to evaluate the practice of dental photography among dental students and practitioners in Saudi Arabia, along with their attitudes about dental photography.

Methods: This cross-sectional study collected data from 300 dental students and dentists in Saudi Arabia. The self-administrated questionnaire was disseminated to participants to measure participants’ practices regarding dental photography, benefits of dental photography and barriers to taking clinical photographs. P-value of less than 0.05 is used as significance level.

Results: Among the participants 78.70% usually take dental photographs (for patients or cases) and 49.30% respondents had attended a course in dental photography. The majority (75.70%) do take verbal consent before taking dental photograph, and 56.7% do cover patients eyes. The most important reasons for dental photographs are documentation (72.7%) and monitor the treatment outcome (71.7%). The most common barriers are time consuming (71.3%) and high cost (67.3%).

Conclusion: Most dental students and dentists in Saudi Arabia take dental photographs of their patients using their phone cameras, and they obtain verbal consent when taking dental photographs. It is also recommended that more restrictive guidelines be put in place for the posting of patient information without their permission by medical practitioners and to lead practitioners to avoid spending time on social media to prevent setbacks in academic performance.

Keywords: Clinical Photography; Dental Students; Dentists; Saudi Arabia


  1. Morse GA., et al. “The use of clinical photography by UK general dental practitioners”. British Dental Journal 1 (2010): E1.
  2. Shagam J and Kleiman A. “Technological updates in dental photography”. Dental Clinics of North America3 (2011): 627-633.
  3. Parikh K., et al. “Evaluation of knowledge, attitude, and practices of registered dental practitioners of Vadodara district, Gujarat regarding clinical photography: A cross sectional survey”. SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences 1 (2018): 21-25.
  4. Ahmad I. “Digital dental photography. Part 1: An overview”. British Dental Journal8 (2009): 403-407.
  5. Hardan LS and Moussa C. “Mobile dental photography: A simple technique for documentation and communication”. Quintessence International6 (2020): 510-518.
  6. Abouzeid HL., et al. “A cross-sectional survey to evaluate acquaintance about dental photography among dental students in daily clinical practice”. Journal of Public Health Research3 (2020): 1866.
  7. Sweetha G., et al. “KAP survey on use of clinical photography by general dental practitioners”. Drug Invention Today5 (2018): 626-629.
  8. Terry DA., et al. “Contemporary dental photography: Selection and application”. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 8 (2008): 432-436, 438, 440-442.
  9. Christensen GJ. “Important clinical uses for digital photography”. Journal of the American Dental Association1 (2005): 77-79.
  10. McLaren EA and Schoenbaum T. “Digital photography enhances diagnostics, communication, and documentation”. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry 32 (2011): 36-38.
  11. Desai V and Bumb D. “Digital dental photography: A contemporary revolution”. International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry3 (2013): 193-196.
  12. Reddy SP., et al. “Evaluation of dental photography among dental professionals”. Journal of Education and Ethics in Dentistry1 (2014): 4-7.
  13. Freedman GA. “Standardization in dental photography”. Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry12 (1989): 682-684.
  14. Uzunov TT., et al. “Application of photography in dental practice”. Journal of IMAB-Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)1 (2015): 682-686.
  15. Basri R., et al. “Dental photography as a method of documentation in Saudi Arabia”. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Science and Technology7 (2018): 6664-6673.
  16. Al-Madi EM., et al. “Developing a dental curriculum for the 21st century in a new dental school in Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Dental Education6 (2018): 591-601.
  17. Casaglia A., et al. “Dental photography today. Part 1: Basic concepts”. Oral and Implantology4 (2015): 122-129.
  18. Sandler J., et al. “Clinical photographs: The gold standard, an update”. Progress in Orthodontics3 (2012): 296-303.
  19. Nair AG and Santhanam A. “Clinical photography for periorbital and facial aesthetic practice”. Journal of Cutaneous and Aesthetic Surgery2 (2016): 115-121.
Citation: Raghad Alharbi., et al. “The Use of Clinical Photography by Dental Students and Practitioners in Saudi Arabia”. EC Dental Science 20.12 (2021): 39-45.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 25, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.