Review Article
Volume 20 Issue 2 - 2021
Tooth Developmental Disorders in Children
Karimi M*
Department of Pediatrics Dentistry, Sepideh Dental Clinic, Iran
*Corresponding Author: Karimi M, Department of Pediatrics Dentistry, Sepideh Dental Clinic, Iran.
Received: November 13, 2020; Published: February 27, 2021


Most babies are born with primary teeth underneath their gums. In general, the process of tooth growth and tooth eruption from the gums in infants begins at about 3 months of age and this process can continue until the age of three. The growth age of primary teeth varies from child to child. In some cases, primary teeth do not develop.

Congenital genetic defects, hormonal disorders, some diseases and malnutrition are considered to be important factors in the lack of tooth development in children.

Keywords: Eruption; Tooth Development; Primary Teeth; Congenital Defect; Hormonal Disorders; Malnutrition


  1. A Pediatric Guide to Children's Oral Health -
  2. C Choukroune. “Tooth eruption disorders associated with systemic and genetic diseases: a clinical guide”. Journal of Dentofacial Anomalies and Orthodontics 20 (2017): 402.
  3. Shaw L and Foster TD. “Size and development of the dentition in endocrine deficiency”. Journal of Pedodontics2 (1989): 155-160.
  4. Loevy HT., et al. “Tooth eruption, and craniofacial development in congenital hypothyroidism: report of a case”. Journal of the American Dental Association 3 (1987): 429-431.
  5. Hinrichs EH Jr. “Dental changes in juvenile hypothyroidism”. Journal of Dentistry for Children – AAPD 33 (1966): 167-173.
  6. Alvarez JO. “Nutrition, tooth development, and dental caries”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2 (1995): 410S-416S.
  7. Garn SM and Rohmann CG. “Interaction of nutrition and genetics in the timing of growth”. Pediatric Clinics of North America 2 (1966): 353-379.
  8. Moyers R. “Handbook of orthodontics, Chicago: Year Book Medical Publishers (1988).
  9. Foster BL., et al. “The rachitic tooth”. Endocrine Reviews 35 (2014): 1-34.
  10. Freiman Anatoli., et al. “Dental manifestations of dermatologic conditions”. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 60 (2008): 289-298.
  11. Neville BW., et al. “Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology”. 2. WB Saunders Co; Philadelphia, Abnormalities of teeth (2002b): 70.
  12. Neelam Singh., et al. “Progeria: A review”. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research 14 (2012): 44-49.
  13. Hennekam RC. “Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome: a review of the phenotype”. The American Journal of Medical Genetics - Part A (2006).
  14. Gordon LB., et al. “Disease progression in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria Syndrome: Impact on growth and development”. Pediatrics4 (2007): 824-833.
  15. Hasty M F and Vann WF. “Progeria in a pediatric dental patient: literature review and case report”. The Pediatric Dental Journal 10 (1988): 314-319.
  16. Wesley RK., et al. “Progeria: Clinical consideration of an isolated case”. Journal of Dentistry for Children – AAPD 6 (1979): 487-492.
  17. Yu QX and Zeng LH. “Progeria; report of a case and review of the literature”. Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine 20 (1991): 86-88.
  18. Patterson D. "Molecular genetic analysis of Down syndrome". Human Genetics1 (2009): 195-214.
  19. Wong S-W., et al. “Nine Novel PAX9 Mutations and a Distinct Tooth Agenesis Genotype-Phenotype”. Journal of Dental Research 2 (2018): 155-162.
  20. Dean Ralph E., et al. “Dentistry for the child and adolescent (8th)”. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby (2004): 164-168.
  21. Cawson RA and Odell EW. “Cawson's essentials of oral pathology and oral medicine (8th edition.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone (2012): 419-421.
  22. Wysocki J., et al. “Contemporary Oral and maxillofacial pathology (2nd Edition.). St. Louis: Mosby (2002): 39-40.
  23. Regezi Joseph A., et al. “Oral Pathology: Clinical Pathologic Correlations (5th Edition)”. St Louis, Missouri: Saunders Elsevier (2008): 353-354.
  24. Suri L., et al. “Delayed tooth eruption: pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment, Literature Review”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 4 (2004): 432-445.
  25. Vucic Strahinja., et al. “Thyroid Function during Early Life and Dental Development”. Journal of Dental Research (2017): 96.
  26. Ayala Carmen., et al. “Oral and systemic manifestations of congenital hypothyroidism in children, A case report”. Journal of Oral Research 4 (2015): 329-334.
  27. Shafer WG., et al. “Textbook of oral pathology”. Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders (1983).
  28. Bhat YJ., et al. “Ellis-van Creveld syndrome with facial hemiatrophy”. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 76 (2010): 266-269.
  29. Ellis RW and Van Creveld S. “A syndrome characterized by ectodermal dysplasia, polydactyly, chondrodysplasia, and congenital Morbus Cordis, Report of 3 cases”. Arch Oral Dis Child 15 (1940): 65-64.
  30. Himelhoch DA and Mostoji R. “Oral manifestations in the Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome, Case report”. Pediatric Dentistry 10 (1988): 309-313.
  31. Sarnat H., et al. “Developmental Dental anomalies in chondrectodermal dysplasia (Ellis-van Creveld Syndrome)”. Journal of Dentistry for Children 47 (1980): 28-31.
  32. McNamara CM., et al. “Cleidocranial dysplasia: radiological appearances on dental panoramic radiography”. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology 28 (1999): 89-97.
  33. Zhang YW., et al. “A RUNX2/PEBP2αA/CBFA1 mutation displaying impaired transactivation and Smad interaction in Cleidocranial dysplasia”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97 (2000): 10549-10554.
  34. Daskalogiannakis J., et al. “Cleidocranial dysplasia: 2 generations of management”. Journal of the Canadian Dental Association 4 (2006): 337-342.
  35. , et al. “Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine, (6th Edition.), McGraw-Hill (2003).
  36. Gupta M., et al. “An unusual case of ectodermal dysplasia: combating senile features at an early age”. BMJ Case Reports 3 (2014): 2013201225.
  37. Prager TM., et al. “Dental findings in patients with ectodermal dysplasia”. The Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics 67 (2006): 347-355.
  38. Lexner MO., et al. “Anomalies of tooth formation in hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia”. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 17 (2007): 10-18.
  39. Bergendal B. “Orodental manifestations in the ectodermal dysplasia-a review”. American Journal of Medical Genetics 164A (2014): 2465-2471.
  40. Xiu Li., et al. “Incontinentia Pigmenti: Case Report”. Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica 3 (2013): 193-197.
  41. Russell DL and Finn SB. “Incontinentia Pigmenti (Bloch- Sulzberger Syndrome): A case report with emphasis on dental manifestation”. Journal of Dentistry for Children – AAPD 34 (1967): 494-500.
  42. Al-Abdallah M., et al. “Prevalence and distribution of dental anomalies: A comparison between maxillary and mandibular tooth agenesis”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 148 (2015): 793-798.
  43. Alvarez J., et al. “Chronic malnutrition, dental caries, and tooth exfoliation in Peruvian children aged 3-9 years”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 48 (1988): 368-372.
  44. Alvarez JO., et al. “The effect of nutritional status on the age distribution of dental caries in the primary teeth”. Journal of Dental Research 9 (1990): 1564-1566.
  45. Moulis E., et al. “Anomalies of the eruption” (2015).
Citation: Karimi M. “Tooth Developmental Disorders in Children”. EC Dental Science 20.3 (2021): 103-108.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

May Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the May issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 28, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to