Review Article
Volume 20 Issue 2 - 2021
Effects of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Pulp Vitality
Mohamed Hany Ahmad Abd Elghany1*, Ahmed Saeed Alqurashi2, Eman Mohammed Ramadan Adam2, Rawan Abdulmohsen Aljuhani2, Abdulrahman Ahmad Alahmari2, Mishari Tariq Alghamdi2, Haya Sultan Alassaf2, Reem Salamah Saad Alanazi2, Asiri Norah Ali M2, Khalid Waleed Tarabzouni3, Athar Mohammed Naghi4, Abdulaziz Mohammed Alqurashi5, Najah Laffy Alharthy6 and Khalid Saleh Alzahrani7
1Cairo University, Egypt
2Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia
3Armed Forces Hospital at Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
4Al Farabi Medical College, Saudi Arabia
5Taif University, Saudi Arabia
6King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
7Ibn Sina National College for Medical Science, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Mohamed Hany Ahmad Abd Elghany, Cairo University, Egypt.
Received: January 04, 2020; Published: January 19, 2021


Introduction: Orthodontic tooth movement brings about a biological response to the surrounding tissues. The dental pulp can show various types of reactions such as inflammation, cell damage, or wound healing in response to such a movement. Orthodontic tooth movement can affect the reparative capacity of the pulp, secondary dentin formation, pulp necrosis, and root resorption as well. Therefore, it is important that these changes are recognized when they become clinically or pathologically significant.

Aim of the Work: The study aimed to evaluate the knowledge and practices of orthodontic tooth movement and its effects on pulp vitality.

Methodology: This review is thorough research of PUBMED from the year 1980 to 2020.

Conclusion: The neural responses of the pulp are affected because of the physiological changes seen during the early stages of the orthodontic force application. It is important to use optimum force for a controlled tooth movement with adequate resting periods to achieve the orthodontic goal and avoid unwanted side effects; Pulp sensitivity tests can be helpful during the course of the treatment to assess the status of the pulp. However, practitioners must be careful in the interpretation of the results from electric pulp testing (EPT).

Keywords: Pulpal Reaction; Pulpal Blood Flow; Orthodontic Force; Tooth Movement


  1. Wang C W., et al. “Dental Pulp Response to Orthodontic Tooth Movement”. Taiwanese Journal of Orthodontics 4 (2020): 2.
  2. Tantipanichkul K O., et al. “Effect of orthodontic forces on human dental pulp: A systematic review”. Mahidol Dental Journal 2 (2017): 243-262.
  3. Krishnan V and Davidovitch Z E. “Cellular, molecular, and tissue-level reactions to orthodontic force”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 4 (2006): 469-e1.
  4. Meikle MC. “The tissue, cellular, and molecular regulation of orthodontic tooth movement: 100 years after Carl Sandstedt”. The European Journal of Orthodontics 3 (2006): 221-240.
  5. Makhoul NM and Ward BB. “Clinical correlate: osteoradionecrosis of the jaws (ORN)”. Mineralized Tissues in Oral and Craniofacial Science: Biological Principles and Clinical Correlates (2012): 343.
  6. Proffit W R., et al. “Contemporary orthodontics-e-book”. Elsevier Health Sciences (2018).
  7. Bauss O., et al. “Influence of orthodontic intrusion on pulpal vitality of previously traumatized maxillary permanent incisors”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1 (2008): 12-17.
  8. Aydin H and Er K “The effect of orthodontic tooth movement on endodontically treated teeth”. Journal of Restorative Dentistry 2 (2016): 31.
  9. Vandevska-Radunovic V., et al. “Changes in blood circulation in teeth and supporting tissues incident to experimental tooth movement”. The European Journal of Orthodontics5 (1994): 361-369.
  10. Veberiene R., et al. “Change in dental pulp parameters in response to different modes of orthodontic force application”. The Angle Orthodontist6 (2010): 1018-1022.
  11. Santamaria Jr M., et al. “Initial pulp changes during orthodontic movement: histomorphological evaluation”. Brazilian Dental Journal1 (2007): 34-39.
  12. Kvinnsland I and Kvinnsland S. “Changes in CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibres during experimental tooth movement in rats”. The European Journal of Orthodontics3 (1990): 320-329.
  13. Yamaguchi M and Kasai K. “The effects of orthodontic mechanics on the dental pulp”. In Seminars in Orthodontics4 (2007): 272-280.
  14. Hamersky P A., et al. “The effect of orthodontic force application on the pulpal tissue respiration rate in the human premolar”. American Journal of Orthodontics4 (1980): 368-378.
  15. Derringer K and Linden R. “Epidermal growth factor released in human dental pulp following orthodontic force”. The European Journal of Orthodontics1 (2007): 67-71.
  16. Abtahi M., et al. “The effect of intrusive orthodontic force on dental pulp of adults versus adolescents”. Dental Research Journal 4 (2016): 367.
  17. Seltzer S. “The dental pulp”. Biologic Considerations in Dental Procedures (1984): 131-151.
  18. Spoto G., et al. “Aspartate aminotransferase activity in human healthy and inflamed dental pulps”. Journal of Endodontics 6 (2001): 394-395.
  19. Mostafa Y A., et al. “Iatrogenic pulpal reactions to orthodontic extrusion”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 1 (1991): 30-34.
  20. Rowe A H R and Ford T P. “The assessment of pulpal vitality”. International Endodontic Journal 2 (1990): 77-83.
  21. Modaresi J., et al. “The effect of orthodontic forces on tooth response to electric pulp test”. Iranian Endodontic Journal 4 (2015): 244.
  22. Chen E and Abbott P V. “Dental pulp testing: a review”. International Journal of Dentistry (2009).
  23. Alomari F A., et al. “Responses of pulp sensibility tests during orthodontic treatment and retention”. International Endodontic Journal 7 (2011): 635-643.
  24. Pudyani PS. “Effects of orthodontic forces on pulp tissue”. Dental Journal 3 (2006): 98-101.
Citation: Mohamed Hany Ahmad Abd Elghany., et al. “Effects of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Pulp Vitality”. EC Dental Science 20.2 (2021): 29-36.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to