Research Article
Volume 20 Issue 2 - 2021
Biomedical Waste Management among Dental Health Care Personnel during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Questionnaire Validation and Preliminary Results
Maryam Khader Alghamdi1*, Khalid Aboalshamat2, Raneem Alahdal3, Sarah Alzanbaki3, Maha Alzahrani4, Wjoud Albishi5, Wejdan Salman5 and Rana Alsulimani4
1Department of Dentistry, General Dentist, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
2Department of Preventive Dentistry, Dental Public Health Division, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
3Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
4Department of Dentistry, General Dentist, Alfarabi College, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
5Department of Dentistry, General Dentist, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Maryam Khader Alghamdi, Department of Dentistry, General Dentist, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: November 27, 2020; Published: January 18, 2021


Introduction: Dental waste is considered hazardous biomedical waste (BMW), and it generates different types of materials. The importance of management of BMW has been accentuated by the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to validate a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitudes and practices around BMW management among dental health care personnel during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: This cross-sectional study involved 159 dental students and dentists in Saudi Arabia who were recruited via online questionnaire. The questionnaire was first validated through piloting. T-tests, linear regressions, chi- square, and ANOVA were used for statistical analyses, and statistical significance was set as a probability value of less than 0.05.

Results: The mean of the participants’ total knowledge score was 6.04 (standard deviation = 2.10) out of 14 questions. About 79.9% were aware that BMW management rules apply to dentists. However, only 6.9% knew how to dispose of a radiographic lead foil. Knowledge levels were significantly higher (0.048) among dentists than dental students. Between 84.9% and 91.8% of respondents think BMW training is important, should be a compulsory undergraduate course and became more important during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Conclusion: The questionnaire has been validated and can be used to assess dental BMW awareness. The level of BMW knowledge in Saudi Arabia is low and needs reinforcement among dental students and dentists.

Keywords: Biomedical Waste; Dental Waste; COVID-19; Health Care; Dentist; Dental Intern


  1. Fett M. “Technology, Health and Health Care”. Occasional Papers: Health Financing Series 5 (2008).
  2. Mathur V., et al. “Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among healthcare personnel: A cross-sectional study”. Indian Journal of Community Medicine2 (2011): 143.
  3. Chartier Y., et al., “Safe Management of Wastes From Health-Care Activities”. 2nd Geneva: World Health Organization (2014).
  4. Shalini S. “Awareness about bio-medical waste management among health care personnel of some important medical centers in Agra”. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development3 (2010): 251-255.
  5. Basu RN. “Issues involved in hospital waste management-an experience from a large teaching institution”. Journal (Academy of Hospital Administration (India))2-1 (1995): 79-83.
  6. Government of India, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW). “National Guidelines on Hospital Waste Management Based upon the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules”. 1998. New Delhi: Mo HFW (2002).
  7. Townend WK. “Safe Management of Wastes From Health-Care Activities”. Edited by Prüss A., et al. Geneva: World Health Organization (1999).
  8. Sanjeev R., et al. “Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among dental healthcare personnel in dental colleges in Kothamangalam: A cross-sectional study”. Health Science 3 (2014): 1-2.
  9. Kesavan R., et al. “Awareness and practices of dental care waste management among dental practitioners in Chennai city-A cross sectional questionnaire study”. Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry5 (2011): 289.
  10. Sharma A., et al. “Awareness of biomedical waste management among health care personnel in Jaipur, India”. Oral Health Dental Management1 (2013): 32-40.
  11. Turnberg WL and Frost F. “Survey of occupational exposure of waste industry workers to infectious waste in Washington State”. American Journal of Public Health10 (1990): 1262-1264.
  12. Johannessen L., et al. “Healthcare waste management guidance note”. World Bank, Health Population and Nutrition Team (2000).
  13. Gupta NK., et al. “Knowledge, attitude and practices of biomedical waste management among health care personnel in selected primary health care centres in Lucknow”. International Journal of Community Medicine and Public Health1 (2016): 309-313.
  14. Rao HV. “Disposal of hospital wastes in Bangalore and their impact on environment”. In the Third International Conference on Appropriate Waste Management Technologies for Developing Countries Nagpur (1995): 25-26.
  15. Yadavannavar MC., et al. “Biomedical waste management: A study of knowledge, attitude, and practices in a tertiary health care institution in Bijapur”. Indian Journal of Community Medicine1 (2010): 170.
  16. Chopra R., et al. “Awareness and attitude regarding biomedical waste disposal among post-graduate students, under-graduate students and auxiliary staff of a dental college-a questionnaire survey”. Indian Journal of Dental Research 5 (2017): 64-67.
  17. Diaz-Soriano A., et al. “Knowledge and awareness of effective recycling of dental materials and waste management among Peruvian undergraduate students of dentistry: A logistic regression analysis”. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry3 (2020): 309.
  18. Manchanda K., et al. “Knowledge, attitude, and practices about biomedical waste management among dental healthcare personnel in dental colleges in Himachal Pradesh: A cross-sectional study”. SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences3 (2015): 166.
  19. Singh T., et al. “Awareness of biomedical waste management in dental students in different dental colleges in Nepal”. BioMed Research International (2018): 1742326.
  20. Pawar PA and Patil TS. “Knowledge, practice and attitude of dental care waste management among private dental practitioners in Latur city”. International Dental Journal of Students Research 5 (2017): 80-84.
  21. Aljunaid MA and Kusumo AD. “Knowledge and awareness of bio-medical waste, management among senior undergraduate and specialist dental students: Cross-sectional study”. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology 3 (2020): 2058-2062.
  22. Lakshmi MN., et al. “Knowledge, attitude and practices about biomedical waste management among dental undergraduates and post graduates in GDC and H, Hyderabad” (2018).
  23. Sudeep CB., et al. “KAP study to assess biomedical waste management in a dental college in south India”. World Journal of Pharmacists and Pharmaceutical Science 6 (2017): 1788-1794.
  24. Sabbahi DA., et al. “Management of dental waste in dental offices and clinics in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association10 (2020): 1022-1029.
  25. Huang C., et al. “Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China”. The Lancet10223 (2020): 497-506.
  26. Jordan V. “Coronavirus (COVID-19): Infection control and prevention measures”. Journal of Primary Health Care1 (2020): 96-97.
  27. World Health Organization. “Water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19: Interim guidance”. World Health Organization (2020).
  28. “Coronavirus infectious waste management”. British Dental Journal802 (2020).
  29. The unified guidelines for biomedical waste management in Arabian Gulf countries, Ministry of Health (MOH) (2020).
Citation: Maryam Khader Alghamdi., et al. “Biomedical Waste Management among Dental Health Care Personnel during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Questionnaire Validation and Preliminary Results”. EC Dental Science 20.2 (2021): 03-11.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 26, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to