Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 11 - 2020
Control and Dispersal of Bacterial Biofilms on Orthodontic Ligatures Using Plant Wealth: An Overview
Rajesh Sawhney1* and Ravish Sharma2
1Department of Microbiology, Rayat Bahra Dental College and Hospital, Sahauran, Mohali, Punjab, India
2Orthodontist, Panchkula, Haryana, India
*Corresponding Author: Rajesh Sawhney, Department of Microbiology, Rayat Bahra Dental College and Hospital, Sahauran, Mohali, Punjab, India.
Received: August 21, 2020; Published: October 31, 2020




Abstract

The development of bacterial biofilms on the fixed appliances have been associated the development of white spot lesion, plaque, enamel decalcification and caries and onset of various infections. Multiple biofilm dispersal and control measures such as acid shock treatment, catheter lock solution etc. have been reviewed earlier. However, visualizing a huge pool of naturally occurring green wealth, the present precise review exclusively reminds of further intensification of more focused approach to evolve promising antibiofilm and antimicrobial biomolecules to curb oral biofilms. A large plant wealth like Ficus retusa, Wrightia tinctoria, Terminalia catappa, Terminalia bellirica, Mentha arvensis, Alangium salviifolium, Psidium guajava, Acacia farnesiana, Cajanus cajan, Anisomeles malabarica etc. have been explored as dental remedies for variety of dental disorders viz. toothache, foetid smell, gingivitis. However, the studies on anti-colonization potential of the plants still seems to be deficient. Further, the scientific data pool also seems to lack ample scientific documentation on plants or their biomolecules with dual antimicrobial and anti-colonization activity, especially in context to orthodontic ligature induced biofilms. Thus, there is need to trigger the targeted research efforts to explore relevant noble phytochemicals.

Keywords: Bacterial Biofilms; Orthodontic Ligatures; Plant Wealth

References

  1. Gamze Metin-Gursoy and Fatma Daniz Uzuner. “The relationship between orthodontic treatment and dental caries”. Dental Caries-Diagnosis, Prevention and Management, Zuhre Akarslan, IntechOpen (2018).
  2. O’Relly MM and Featherstone JDB. “Demineralisation and remineralisation around orthodontic appliances: An In vivo study”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 92 (1987): 33-40.
  3. Ogaard B. “Prevalence of white spot lesions in 19-year-olds: a study on untreated and orthodontically treated persons 5 years after treatment”. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 5 (1989): 423-427.
  4. Sawhney R and Berry V. “Bacterial Biofilm formation, pathogenicity, diagnostics and control: An overview”. Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 7 (2009): 315-322.
  5. Sawhney R. “Green pharmacy to combat pathogenic bacterial biofilms: An overview”. Advance Pharmaceutical Journal 5 (2016): 114-118.
  6. Didry N., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of aerial parts Drosera pelata Smith on oral bacteria”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1 (1998): 91-96.
  7. Ganesan S. “Traditional oral care medicinal plants survey of Tamil Nadu”. Natural Product Radiance2 (2008): 166-172.
  8. Khare CP. “Indian medicinal plants”. Berlin: Springer-Verlag (2007): 6-731.
  9. , et al. “Herbal medicines”. 3rd Edition. London: Pharmaceutical Press (2007): 84-86.
  10. Hammer KA., et al. “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils and other plant extracts”. Journal of Applied Microbiology 6 (1999): 985-990.
  11. Gümüs G. “Periodontal disease” (2009).
  12. Soliman KM and Badeaa RI. “Effect of oil extracted from some medicinal plants on different mycotoxigenic fungi”. Food and Chemical Toxicology 11 (2002): 1669-1675.
  13. “Herbal remedies for periodontal disease” (2009).
  14. Otake S., et al. “Anticaries effects of polyphenolic compounds from Japanese green tea”. Caries Research 6 (1991): 438-443.
  15. Ooshima T., et al. “Oolong tea polyphenols inhibit experimental dental caries in SPF rats infected with mutans streptococci”. Caries Research 2 (1993): 124-129.
  16. Ooshima T., et al. “Reduction of dental plaque deposition in humans by oolong tea extract”. Caries Research 3 (1994): 146-149.
  17. Ooshima T., et al. “Comparison of the cariostatic effects between regimens to administer Oolong tea polyphenols in SPF rats”. Caries Research 1 (1998): 75-80.
  18. Hamilton-Miller JMT. “Anti-cariogenic properties of tea (Camellia sinensis)”. Journal of Medical Microbiology 4 (2001): 299-302.
  19. Nogueira FN., et al. “In vitro approach to evaluate potential harmful effects of beer on teeth”. Journal of Dentistry 4 (2000): 271-276.
  20. Lee KH., et al. “Essential oil of Curcuma longa inhibits Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation”. Journal of Food Science 9 (2011): 226-230.
  21. Shouji N., et al. “Anticaries effect of a component from Shiitake (an Edible mushroom)”. Caries Research 1 (2000): 94-98.
  22. Papetti A., et al. “Components in Lentinus edodes mushroom with antibiofilm activity directed against bacteria involved in caries and gingivitis (2018).
  23. Silva LN., et al. “Anti-infective effects of Brazilian Caatinga plants against pathogenic bacterial biofilm”. Pharmaceutical Biology 3 (2015): 464-468.
  24. Skogman ME., et al. “Evaluation of antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of cinchona alkaloid derivatives against Staphylococcus aureus”. Natural Product Communications 9 (2012): 1173-1176.
  25. Lee JH., et al. “Antibiofilm activities of quercetin and tannic acid against Staphylococcus aureus”. Biofouling 5 (2013): 491-499.
  26. Antonio AG., et al. “Effect of Coffea canephora aqueous extract on microbial counts in ex vivo oral biofilms: a case study”. Planta Medica 8 (2012): 755-760.
  27. Antonio AG., et al. “Inhibitory properties of Coffea canephora extract against oral bacteria and its effect on demineralisation of deciduous teeth”. Archives of Oral Biology 6 (2011): 556-564.
  28. Mansouri S., et al. “Inhibitory activity of Iranian plant extracts on growth and biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa”. The Malaysian Journal of Microbiology 2 (2013): 176-183.
  29. Namasivayam SKR and Allen Roy E. “Antibiofilm effect of medicinal plant extract against clinical isolate of biofilm of Escherichia coli”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2 (2013): 486-448.
  30. Nidadavolu P., et al. “Garlic ointment inhibits biofilm formation by bacterial pathogens from burn wounds”. Journal of Medical Microbiology 5 (2012): 662-671.
  31. Cowan MM. “Plant products as antimicrobial agents”. Clinical Microbiology Reviews4 (1999): 564-582.
  32. Yanagida A., et al. “Inhibitory effects of apple polyphenols and related compounds on cariogenic factors of mutans streptococci”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 11 (2000): 5666-5671.
  33. Trentin Dda S., et al. “Potential of medicinal plants from the Brazilian semi-arid region (Caatinga) against Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic and biofilm lifestyles”. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1 (2011): 327-335.
  34. Kim HS., et al. “6-Gingerol reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation and virulence via quorum sensing inhibition”. Scientific Reports 5 (2015): 8656.
  35. Signoretto Caterina., et al. “The anti-adhesive mode of action of a purified mushroom (Lentinus edodes) extract with anticaries and antigingivitis properties in two oral bacterial pathogens”. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 1 (2014): 75.
Citation: Rajesh Sawhney and Ravish Sharma. “Control and Dispersal of Bacterial Biofilms on Orthodontic Ligatures Using Plant Wealth: An Overview”.EC Dental Science 19.11 (2020): 197-121.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 09, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk