Research Article
Volume 19 Issue 10 - 2020
Effect of Different Chelating Agents on Calcium Ion Quantification and on Microhardness of Human Radicular Dentin-An In Vitro Study
Ashish Jain1, P Karunakar2, Umrana Faizuddin3, Raji Viola Solomon3*, Marupaka Rasagna4 and P Shanti Priya5
1Reader, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KNR University, India
2Professor and Head of the Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KNR University, India
3Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KNR University, India
4Post Graduate Student, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KNR University, India
5Senior Lecturer, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, KNR University, India
*Corresponding Author: Raji Viola Solomon, Professor, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Panineeya Institute of Dental Sciences and Research Centre, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Received: May 21, 2020; Published: October 27, 2020


Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, 1% Phytic acid, 0.2% Chitosan on Calcium ion quantification and microhardness of human root canal dentin using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Vickers microhardness tester.

Materials and Methods: A total of eighty extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated and root canal treatment was prepared. Samples were divided into two subgroups, one half for calcium ion quantification and other half for microhardness testing. Based on the type of chelating agent used in each subgroup, samples (N = 10) were divided Repetition (three test and one control). The calcium loss was evaluated using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and microhardness with Vickers microhardness tester.

Statistical analysis: Data were analyzed for calcium ion quantification using one-way ANOVA, Post hoc Tukey’s test and for microhardness testing using Student’s t test.

Results: Calcium loss along with resultant drop in microhardness were maximal in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) group with a significant difference from Phytic acid and Chitosan group (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference seen between the Phytic acid and Chitosan groups (p > 0.05) in both the tested parameters (Calcium ion quantification and Microhardness).

Conclusion: Use of 0.2% chitosan and 1% phytic acid can be thought of as alternatives to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid when used as chelating agent when used along with sodium hypochlorite.

Keywords: Calcium; Microhardness; EDTA; Phytic Acid; Chitosan; ICP-OES; Vickers Microhardness Tester


  1. Pimenta JA., et al. “Effect of a new chelating agent on the microhardness of root dentin”. Brazilian Dental Journal 3 (2012): 212-217.
  2. De-Deus G., et al. “Longitudinal and quantitative evaluation of dentin demineralization when subjected to EDTA, EDTAC, and citric acid: a co-site digital optical microscopy study”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 3 (2008): 391-397.
  3. Yadav HK., et al. “Efficacy of etidronic acid, BioPure MTAD and SmearClear in removing calcium ions from the root canal: An In vitro study”. European Journal of Dentistry 4 (2015): 523-528.
  4. Eliot C., et al. “The effect of the irrigant QMix on removal of canal wall smear layer: An ex vivo study”. Odontology2 (2013): 232-240.
  5. Sumathi K. “A Comparative Evaluation of Efficacy of Phytic Acid, Etidronic Acid and EDTA on Smear Layer Removal and Dentin Erosion at Different Time Intervals Using Scanning Electron Microscope”. An In Vitro Study (2017).
  6. Raboy V. “D-myo-Inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakisphosphate”. Phytochemistry6 (2003): 1033-1043.
  7. Szwergold BS., et al. “Observation of inositol pentakis- and hexakis-phosphates in mammalian tissues by 31P NMR”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications3 (1987): 874-881.
  8. Niu W., et al. “A scanning electron microscopic study of dentinal erosion by final irrigation with EDTA and NaOCl solutions”. International Endodontic Journal 11 (2002): 934-939.
  9. Ramachandran N., et al. “Effect of ultrasonic activation on calcium ion quantification, smear layer removal, and canal cleaning efficacy of demineralizing irrigants”. Journal of Conservative Dentistry 5 (2018): 551-556.
  10. Praveen M., et al. “A comparative evaluation of intraradicular smear removal efficacy of 2% chitosan (low molecular weight), 4% Chitosan Citrate, and 10% Citric Acid when Used as Final Rinse in Irrigation Protocols: A Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopic Study”. Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences 1 (2017): 73-78.
  11. Nikhil V., et al. “Effect of phytic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and chitosan solutions on microhardness of the human radicular dentin”. Journal of Conservative Dentistry 2 (2016): 179-183.
  12. Silva PV., et al. “Chitosan: a new solution for removal of smear layer after root canal instrumentation”. International Endodontic Journal 4 (2012): 332-338.
  13. Seidberg BH., et al. “An evaluation of EDTA in endodontics”. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology 4 (1974): 609-620.
  14. Hülsmann M., et al. “Complications during root canal irrigation – Literature review and case reports”. International Endodontic Journal 3 (2000): 186-193.
  15. Pimenta JA., et al. “Chitosan: effect of a new chelating agent on the microhardness of root dentin”. Brazilian Dental Journal 23 3 (2012): 212-217.
  16. Calt S., et al. “Time-dependent effects of EDTA on dentin structures”. Journal of Endodontics 1 (2002): 17-19.
  17. Andersen O., et al. “Molecular mechanisms of in vivo metal chelation: Implications for clinical treatment of metal intoxications”. Environmental Health Perspectives 5 (2002): 887-890.
  18. Nassar M., et al. “Phytic Acid: An Alternative Root Canal Chelating Agent”. Journal of Endodontics 2 (2015): 242-247.
  19. Silva PV., et al. “Time-dependent effects of chitosan on dentin structures”. Brazilian Dental Journal 4 (2012): 357-361.
  20. Darrag AM., et al. “Effectiveness of different final irrigation solutions on smear layer removal in intraradicular dentin”. Tanta Dental Journal2 (2014): 93-99.
  21. Rhazi M., et al. “Influence of the nature of the metal ions on the complexation with chitosan”. European Polymer Journal 8 (2002): 1523-1530.
  22. Blair HS., et al. “Studies in the adsorption and diffusion of ions in chitosan”. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology 1 (2007): 6-10.
  23. Domard A. “pH and c.d. measurements on a fully deacetylated chitosan: application to CuII-polymer interactions”. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 2 (1987): 98-104.
  24. Wu Qing-Xi., et al. “Design of chitosan and its water soluble derivatives-based drug carriers with polyelectrolyte complexes”. Marine Drugs12 (2014): 6236-6253.
  25. Spano JC., et al. “Atomic absorption spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy evaluation of concentration of calcium ions and smear layer removal with root canal chelators”. Journal of Endodontics 5 (2009): 727-730.
  26. Hagar Bastawy and Rania Ezzat. "Impact of Chitosan as Chelating Agent on Microhardness and Mineral Content of Intraradicular Dentin”. Al-Azhar Dental Journal for Girls1 (2016): 1-10.
Citation: Raji Viola Solomon., et al. “Effect of Different Chelating Agents on Calcium Ion Quantification and on Microhardness of Human Radicular Dentin-An In Vitro Study”. EC Dental Science 19.10 (2020): 83-95.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

July Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the July issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 09, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to