Research Article
Volume 19 Issue 11 - 2020
Areca Nut and Smokeless Tobacco: Identifying Addiction and Mucosal Changes in Habitual Chewers
Ayesha Basit1, Sadia Mahmood2, Maham Naeem3, Abdur Rehman4*, Syed Muzzamil Ali Shah5, Amna Farrukh6, Danish Muzaffar7 and Rafey Ahmed Jameel8
1Associate Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan
2Lecturer, Department of Oral Biology, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan
3Lecturer, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan
4Associate Professor, Science of Dental Material Department, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan
5Associate Professor, Department of Community Dentistry, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan
6Senior Registrar, Department of Orthodontics, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Hamdard University Karachi, Pakistan
7Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Segi University, Kota Damansara Selangor, Malaysia
8Assistant Professor, Department of Oral Biology and Tooth Morphology, Foundation University College of Dentistry and Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Abdur Rehman, Associate Professor, Science of Dental Material Department, Hamdard University Dental Hospital, Hamdard University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Received: September 28, 2020; Published: October 22, 2020


The objective of this study is to identify the addiction potential and mucosal changes in the habitual chewers of areca nut and smokeless tobacco with emphasis on the importance of clinical diagnostic skills and documentation of such patients. A proforma was filled for each chewer reporting to Hamdard University Dental Hospital, consisting of information regarding chewers demography, chewing habit, and identification of oral changes due to these substances. After an orientation session, patients were assigned to final year BDS students and house officers. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 25. Out of 664 study participants, predominant age group was 26 - 45 years (49.5 %), males 65% and literate up to the level of matriculation 35.8%. The chewers were predominantly housewives 25% followed by field workers 24.8% in terms of occupation. Significant relationships were found between age and substance consumed and so between substance consumed and withdrawal symptoms. Areca nut alone most commonly chewed 31.7% and 75% participants consuming one or more substances for more than five years. Taste was the predominant cause of the habit 44.7%. Withdrawal symptoms were reported by 40.6% participants. 80.1% chewers knew about the potential harm of these substances. The predominant clinical finding 45% was restricted mouth opening, followed by fibrous bands 25.7%. No significant relationship was found between the type of substance chewed and the type of clinical findings. Chewers lack of awareness and failure to recognize the harmful effects of areca nut and SLT, necessitates clinical diagnostic skills training of young doctors with documentation and long term follow up of these patients.

Keywords: Areca Nut; Smokeless Tobacco; Oral Sub Mucous Fibrosis; Oral Cancer; Gutka; Malignant Transformation; Oral Mucosal Lesions; Addiction; Dependency Syndrome; Burning Sensation


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Citation: Abdur Rehman., et al. “Areca Nut and Smokeless Tobacco: Identifying Addiction and Mucosal Changes in Habitual Chewers”.EC Dental Science 19.11 (2020): 20-29.

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