Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 6 - 2020
Periodontal Vaccines: A Dental Regime! Systematic Review
Rimi Najeeb1*, Anamika Sharma2 and Mehvish Saleem3
1Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, UP, India
2Head of Department (HOD), Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM), Meerut, UP, India
3Lecturer, Department of Periodontology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, UP, India
*Corresponding Author: Rimi Najeeb, Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, UP, India.
Received: May 18, 2020; Published: May 30, 2020




Abstract

Background: The infective etiology of periodontitis is perplexing and no corrective treatment methodology exists. Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial infections that lead to gingival inflammation, periodontal tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Vaccination is a method that results in specific immune resistance to a bacteriological or viral infection, Periodontal sickness is multifactorial the multifaceted nature of the periodontopathic microscopic organisms can be an issue in assurance of Antigens. Chronic periodontitis is a long-lasting infection of the gum tissues, produced by an excess of dental plaque also the body’s immune reaction to the harmful bacteria. It can cause the loss of bone and soft tissues and shows evidence of chronic periodontitis with a rise in the size of risk of certain cancers, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Objective of the Study: The main objective of periodontal vaccine is to identify the antigens convoluted in the damaging method of periodontitis counter to which antibodies could be aroused to exert protection.

Aims of the Study: To review the evidence that active or passive immunization against periodontitis provides immune protection also to induce mucosal antibody response with moderate doses of vaccine. The life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained, get enhanced the quality of life.

Materials and Methods: PubMed (Medline), the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Disease Control electronic databases were searched to extrapolate information on immune responses to immunization against periodontitis. A development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

Results: Studies in non-human primate models using ligature-induced experimental periodontitis suggest that antibody responses by active immunization against Porphyromonas gingivalis can safely be induced, enhanced, and obtained over time.

Immune responses to whole bacterial cell and purified protein preparations considered as vaccine candidates have been evaluated in different animal models demonstrating that there are several valid vaccine candidates. Data suggest that immunization reduces the rate and severity of bone loss. It is also, temporarily, possible to alter the composition of the subgingival microflora. Natural active immunization by therapeutic interventions results in antibody titre enhancement and potentially improves treatment outcomes. Aloof vaccination of people utilizing P. gingivalis monoclonal antibodies briefly forestalls colonization of P. gingivalis. Probiotic therapy can be an unconventional approach. Administrative and security issues for human periodontal immunization preliminaries must be thought of.

Conclusion: Proof of principle that active and passive immunization can induce protective antibody responses is given. The impact of natural immunization and passive immunization in humans should be explored and may, presently, be more feasible than active immunization studies. We cannot ensure success in case of periodontal vaccine because of the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

Keywords: Vaccine; Immunity; Antibody; Antigen; Porphyromonas gingivalis

References

  1. Roderich N. “Immunology”. In: Brooks GF, Butel JS, Morse SA, editors. Javetz, Meinik and Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology. 23rd edition 121 (2004).
  2. Listl S., et al. “Global economic impact of dental diseases”. Journal of Dental Research 94 (2015): 1355-1361.
  3. Reid R and Roberts F. “Textbook of pathology illustrated”. 6th Churchill Livingstone (2005): 677.
  4. Socransky SS and Haffajee AD. “Microbiology of periodontal disease”. In: Lindhe J, Karring T, Lang NP, editors. Clinical Periodontology and Implant Dentistry, 4th Oxford: Blackwell Munksgaard (2003).
  5. Persson RG. “Immune responses and vaccination against periodontal infections”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 6 (2005): 39-53.
  6. Mouton C., et al. “Immunochemical identification and preliminary characterization of a nonfimbrial hemagglutinating adhesin of Bacteroides gingivalis”. Infection and Immunity 57 (1989): 566-573.
  7. Maeba S., et al. “Transcutaneous Immunization With a 40-kDa Outer Membrane Protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis Induces Specific Antibodies Which Inhibit Coaggregation by gingivalis”. Vaccine 23.19 (2005): 2513-2521.
  8. Kesavalu L., et al. “Porphyromonas gingivalis virulence in mice: induction of immunity to bacterial components”. Infection and Immunity 4 (1992): 1455-1464.
  9. Cholan PK., et al. “Periodontal vaccine: A short synopsis”. SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences 3 (2012): 240-246.
  10. Malhotra R., et al. “Periodontal vaccine”. Indian Journal of Dental Research 5 (2011): 698-705.
  11. Shin EA., et al. “Langridge WHO Synthesis and assembly of an adjuvanted Porphyromonas gingivalis fimbrial antigen fusion protein in plants”. Protein Expression and Purification 47 (2006): 99-109.
  12. Choi JI., et al. “Fusobacterium nucleatum impairs serum binding to Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 18 (2003): 92-94.
  13. Choi JI., et al. “Immunoreactivity of poly-specific peptide from Porphyromonas gingivalis heat shock protein (Abstract 2716). 88th General Session and Exhibition of the IADR Barcelona, Spain?”. Barcelona: International Association for Dental Research (2010).
  14. Harano K., et al. “An antiserum to a synthetic fimbrial peptide of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans blocked adhesion of the microorganism”. FEMS Microbiology Letters 130 (1995): 279-285.
  15. Kudyar N., et al. “Periodontal Vaccine: A dream or reality”. Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology 15 (2011): 115-120.
  16. Lee JY., et al. “Porphyromonas gingivalis heat shock protein vaccine reduces the alveolar bone loss induced by multiple periodontopathogenic bacteria”. Journal of Periodontal Research 41 (2006): 10‑1
  17. Yonezawa H., et al. “Immunization by Arg‑gingipain A DNA vaccine protects mice against an invasive Porphyromonas gingivalis infection through regulation of interferon‑gamma production”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 20 (2005): 259‑2
  18. O’Brien‑Simpson NM., et al. “An immune response directed to proteinase and adhesin functional epitopes protects against Porphyromonas gingivalis‑induced periodontal bone loss”. Journal of Immunology 175 (2005): 3980‑398
  19. Evans RT., et al. “Immunization with Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) gingivalis fimbriae protects against periodontal destruction”. Infection and Immunity 60 (1992): 2926‑29
  20. Herminajeng E., et al. “Protective humoral immunity induced by surface‑associated material from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in mice”. Microbes and Infection 3 (2001): 997‑
  21. Moritz AJ., et al. “Immunization with Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine protease effects on experimental gingivitis and ligature induced periodontitis in Macaca fascicularis”. Journal of Periodontology 69 (1998): 686-697.
  22. Persson GR., et al. “Immunization against Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibits progression of experimental periodontitis in nonhuman primates”. Infection and Immunity 62 (1994a): 1026-1031.
  23. Persson GR., et al. “Macaca fascicularis as a model in which to assess the safety and efficacy of a vaccine for periodontitis”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 9 (1994b): 104-111.
  24. Ebersole JL., et al. “Molecular approaches to leukotoxin as a virulence component to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans”. Archives Oral Biology 35 (1990): 69S-78S.
  25. Niesengard R., et al. “Effects of immunization with macace on induced periodontitis. Preliminary findings”. Immunological Investigations 18 (1989): 225-237.
  26. Zhang T., et al. “Sublingual vaccination with outer membrane protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Flt3 ligand elicits protective immunity in the oral cavity”. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 390 (2009): 937-941.
  27. Gemmell E., et al. “Modulation of the antibody response by Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum in a mouse model”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 19 (2004): 247-251.
  28. Ross CR., et al. “Characterization of two outer membrane protein antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis that are protective in a murine lesion model”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 19 (2001b): 6-15.
  29. DeCarlo AA., et al. “Feasibility of an HA2 domain-based periodontitis vaccine”. Infection and Immunity 71 (2003): 562-566.
  30. Rajapakse PS., et al. “Immunization with the RgpA-Kgp proteinase-adhesin complexes of Porphyromonas gingivalis protects against periodontal bone loss in the rat periodontitis model”. Infection and Immunity 70 (2002): 2480-2486.
  31. Gibson FC III. and Genco RA. “Prevention of Porphyromonas gingivalis induced oral bone loss following immunization wit GingipainR1”. Infection and Immunity 69 (2001): 7959-7963.
  32. O’Brien-Simpson NM., et al. “RgpA-Kgp peptide based immunogens probide protection against Porphyromonas gingivalis challenge in a murine lesion model”. Infection and Immunity 68 (2000): 4055-4063.
  33. Katz J., et al. “Host responses to recombinant hemagglutinin B of Porphyromonas gingivalis in an experimental rat model”. Infection and Immunity 67 (1999): 4352-4359.
  34. Genco CA., et al. “A peptide domain on gingipain R which confers immunity against Porphyromonas gingivalis infection in mice”. Infection and Immunity 66 (1998): 4108-4114.
  35. Aukhil I., et al. “The effects of periodontal therapy on serum antibody (IgG) in plaque microorganisms”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 15 (1988): 544-550.
  36. Kohyama A. “Microbiological and serological investigation of periodontal disease activity”. Nippon Shishubyo Gakkai Kaishi 31 (1989): 360-379.
  37. Chen HA., et al. “Immunodominant antigens of Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis”. Oral Microbiology and Immunology 10 (1995): 193-201.
  38. Johnson V., et al. “Effects of treatment on antibody titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis in gingival crevicular fluid of patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis”. Journal of Periodontology 64 (1993): 559-565.
  39. Sjo¨stro¨m K., et al. “Effect of treatment on titer, function, and antigen recognition of serum antibodies to Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans in patients with rapidly progressive periodontitis”. Infection and Immunity 62 (1994): 145-151.
  40. Mooney J., et al. “Initial serum antibody titer to Porphyromonas gingivalis influences development of antibody avidity and success of therapy for chronic periodontitis”. Infection and Immunity 63 (1995): 3411-3416.
  41. Horibe M., et al. “Effect of periodontal treatments on serum IgG antibody titer to periodontal bacteria”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 22 (1995): 510-515.
  42. Smith GT., et al. “Short-term responses to periodontal therapy in insulin-dependent diabetic patients”. Journal of Periodontology 67 (1996): 794-802.
  43. Booth V., et al. “Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis in patients with periodontitis”. Infection and Immunity 64 (1996): 422-427.
  44. Papapanou P., et al. “Longitudinal stability of serum immunoglobulin G responses to periodontal bacteria”. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 31 (2004): 989-990.
Citation: Rimi Najeeb., et al. “Periodontal Vaccines: A Dental Regime! Systematic Review”. EC Dental Science 19.6 (2020): 142-154.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 15, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk