Review Article
Volume 19 Issue 6 - 2020
Periodontal Vaccines: A Dental Regime! Systematic Review
Rimi Najeeb1*, Anamika Sharma2 and Mehvish Saleem3
1Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, UP, India
2Head of Department (HOD), Lala Lajpat Rai Memorial Medical College (LLRM), Meerut, UP, India
3Lecturer, Department of Periodontology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, UP, India
*Corresponding Author: Rimi Najeeb, Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Subharti Dental College and Hospital, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, Meerut, UP, India.
Received: May 18, 2020; Published: May 30, 2020


Background: The infective etiology of periodontitis is perplexing and no corrective treatment methodology exists. Periodontal diseases are chronic bacterial infections that lead to gingival inflammation, periodontal tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Vaccination is a method that results in specific immune resistance to a bacteriological or viral infection, Periodontal sickness is multifactorial the multifaceted nature of the periodontopathic microscopic organisms can be an issue in assurance of Antigens. Chronic periodontitis is a long-lasting infection of the gum tissues, produced by an excess of dental plaque also the body’s immune reaction to the harmful bacteria. It can cause the loss of bone and soft tissues and shows evidence of chronic periodontitis with a rise in the size of risk of certain cancers, rheumatoid arthritis and Alzheimer’s Disease.

Objective of the Study: The main objective of periodontal vaccine is to identify the antigens convoluted in the damaging method of periodontitis counter to which antibodies could be aroused to exert protection.

Aims of the Study: To review the evidence that active or passive immunization against periodontitis provides immune protection also to induce mucosal antibody response with moderate doses of vaccine. The life of people for whom periodontal treatment cannot be easily obtained, get enhanced the quality of life.

Materials and Methods: PubMed (Medline), the National Institutes of Health, the Food and Drug Administration and the Center for Disease Control electronic databases were searched to extrapolate information on immune responses to immunization against periodontitis. A development of a multispecies vaccine targeting the four prime periodontal pathogens, viz Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.

Results: Studies in non-human primate models using ligature-induced experimental periodontitis suggest that antibody responses by active immunization against Porphyromonas gingivalis can safely be induced, enhanced, and obtained over time.

Immune responses to whole bacterial cell and purified protein preparations considered as vaccine candidates have been evaluated in different animal models demonstrating that there are several valid vaccine candidates. Data suggest that immunization reduces the rate and severity of bone loss. It is also, temporarily, possible to alter the composition of the subgingival microflora. Natural active immunization by therapeutic interventions results in antibody titre enhancement and potentially improves treatment outcomes. Aloof vaccination of people utilizing P. gingivalis monoclonal antibodies briefly forestalls colonization of P. gingivalis. Probiotic therapy can be an unconventional approach. Administrative and security issues for human periodontal immunization preliminaries must be thought of.

Conclusion: Proof of principle that active and passive immunization can induce protective antibody responses is given. The impact of natural immunization and passive immunization in humans should be explored and may, presently, be more feasible than active immunization studies. We cannot ensure success in case of periodontal vaccine because of the complex etiopathogenesis of the disease.

Keywords: Vaccine; Immunity; Antibody; Antigen; Porphyromonas gingivalis


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Citation: Rimi Najeeb., et al. “Periodontal Vaccines: A Dental Regime! Systematic Review”. EC Dental Science 19.6 (2020): 142-154.

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