Research Article
Volume 19 Issue 6 - 2020
Maternal Periodontal Disease and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study
Chermine Nasser*, Bakari S Lembariti and Irene K Minja
Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar-es- Salaam, Tanzania
*Corresponding Author: Chermine Nasser, Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar-es- Salaam, Tanzania.
Received: May 11, 2020; Published: May 28, 2020




Abstract

Background: Periodontal disease (PD) is a multifactorial inflammatory condition in which inappropriate interactions between the host’s immune response and specific groups of bacterial pathogens lead to destruction of connective and bone tissues supporting the teeth. Different studies conducted in developed countries have shown association between maternal periodontitis and adverse pregnancy outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight infants, however, some other studies have not shown any association.

Aim of the Study: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between periodontal diseases and birth weight and preterm birth among postpartum women attending postnatal clinic at Muhimbili National Hospital.

Methods: A total of 400 postpartum women, aged 18 to 47 years were recruited for the study. The study involved collection of information on social-demographic characteristics, oral hygiene habits and behavioral factors using a self-administered structured questionnaire. Clinical periodontal examination of Ramfjord Index Teeth for assessment of periodontal status was performed. Chi-square of independence, p value < 0.05 and logistic regression were selected to test for associations.

Results: The mean age of study participants was 28.5 ± 6 years. About 23% of postpartum women were found to have periodontal diseases. The most common clinical (intraoral) findings were plaque (59.5%), followed by gingival bleeding (42.5%) and calculus (35.5%). Periodontal disease was found in 26.9% (n = 45) and 20.2% (n = 47) of mothers with low and normal birthweight babies, respectively. Also, 23.3% (n = 41) and 22.8% (n = 51) of mother with periodontal disease had pre-term and full term babies, respectively.

Conclusion: This study showed that a significant number of post-delivery women suffered from periodontal disease mostly in the form of gingivitis but only a few had periodontitis. The study showed no statistical relationship between periodontal diseases and premature babies and low birth weight babies i.e. p value was not < 0.05. Similarly, no significant association between periodontal diseases and adverse pregnancy outcomes was observed. Regardless, frequent dental check-ups and oral health education should be incorporated in pre and post-natal health education sessions to prevent periodontal diseases.

Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Periodontal Diseases; Postpartum; Preterm; Tanzania

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Citation: Chermine Nasser., et al. “Maternal Periodontal Disease and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes at Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania: A Cross-Sectional Study”. EC Dental Science 19.6 (2020): 128-137.

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