Research Article
Volume 19 Issue 5 - 2020
Prevalence, Severity and Pattern of Early Childhood Caries in Two-to Five-Year-Old Pre-School Children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
Anas Shabra1*, Hala AlKattan2, Wejdan ALSaiari3, Bushra Alsolami3, Alaa Sanari2 and Doaa Banaamah2
1Dental Department, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
2Private Practice, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3Ministry of Health, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
*Corresponding Author: Anas Shabra, Private Practice, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Received: March 20, 2020; Published: April 13, 2020




Abstract

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, severity and pattern of early childhood caries (ECC) in two-to-five-year-old preschool children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

Methods: A total of 332 preschool children were randomly selected from ten private kindergartens from four different regions based on tuition fees in Jeddah.

Results: 228 (68.7%) children out of a total of 332 children were diagnosed with caries. The mean dmft for the 332 children was (3.90 ± 4.16) and the mean dmfs was (7.28 ± 11.44). There was no significant difference in caries prevalence in relation to gender. However, the prevalence of caries increased with age. Caries distribution among individual teeth was higher in maxillary teeth (20.55%) than in mandibular teeth (18.46%). Caries prevalence according to school tuition level was higher in low and middle fees schools as compared to high fees schools (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in frequency of dental caries in relation to the four different Jeddah's regions (North, East, West, South) (P. value 0.122). Besides, there were no significant differences between the means of mt, ft and dmft except for dt that showed significant difference between Jeddah’s regions which was higher in Northern and Eastern regions than in Western and Southern regions (P. value 0.007). Moreover, there were no significant differences between the means of ms, fs and dmfs except for ds that showed significant differences between regions which was higher in Northern than other regions (P value 0.003).

Conclusion: Prevalence of Early Childhood caries in our study was (68.7%) therefore, we recommend that the dentist should be involved much earlier awareness as early as mother awareness during pregnancy.

Keywords: Prevalence; Severity; Dental Caries; Children; Primary Schools

References

  1. Wyne AH. “Caries prevalence, severity, and pattern in preschool children”. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 9 (2008): 24-31.
  2. Council R. “Policy on early childhood caries (ECC): Classifications, consequences, and preventive strategies”. Pediatric Dentistry 39 (2017): 59-61.
  3. De Grauwe A., et al. “Early Childhood Caries (ECC): What’s in a name?” European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 5 (2004): 62-70.
  4. Drury TF., et al. “Clinical Practice of the Dental Hygienist”. Tenth edition, early childhood caries, Philadelphia (2009): 344-345.
  5. Gruebbel AO. “Clinical Practice of the Dental Hygienist”. Tenth edition, Primary Dentition, Philadelphia, (2009): 344-345.
  6. Wyne AH. “Caries prevalence, severity, and pattern in preschool children”. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice 9 (2002): 24-31.
  7. Al-Malik MI., et al. “Erosion, caries and rampant caries in preschool children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology 30 (2002): 16-23.
  8. Al-Meedani LA and Al-Dlaigan YH. “Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia”. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences 32 (2016): 452-456.
  9. Alamoudi N. “Prevalence of Nursing Bottle Syndrome Among Preschool Children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. Saudi Dental Journal 8 (1996): 34-36.
  10. Alotaibi F., et al. “Prevalence of Early Childhood Caries among Preschool Children in Dawadmi, Saudi Arabia”. International Journal of Medical Science and Clinical Invention 4 (2017): 3010-3014.
  11. Al-Malik MI., et al. “Prevalence and patterns of caries, rampant caries, and oral health in two- to five-year-old children in Saudi Arabia”. Journal of Dentistry for Children 70 (2003): 235-242.
  12. Al Agili DE. “A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia”. Saudi Dental Journal 25 (2013): 3-11.
  13. Farsi N. “Developmental enamel defects and their association with dental caries in preschoolers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. Oral Health and Preventive Dentistry 8 (2010): 85-92.
  14. Nunn ME., et al. “Healthy eating index is a predictor of early childhood caries”. Journal of Dental Research 88 (2009): 361-366.
  15. Drury TF., et al. “Diagnosing and reporting early childhood caries for research purposes”. Journal of Public Health Dentistry 59 (1999): 192-197.
  16. Wyne A., et al. “The prevalence and pattern of nursing caries in Saudi preschool children”. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry 11 (2001): 361-364.
Citation: Anas Shabra., et al. “Prevalence, Severity and Pattern of Early Childhood Caries in Two-to Five-Year-Old Pre-School Children in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia”. EC Dental Science 19.5 (2020): 76-87.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for September Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the September issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 21, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk