Conceptual Paper
Volume 19 Issue 4 - 2020
Cytokine’s and Growth Factors from Bone and Dentine Extracellular Matrix as Regulators of Bone Engineering
Anka Letic Gavrilovic and Ivana Gavrilovic*
Department of Periodontology, Dental Clinic, Zagarolo (RM), Italy
*Corresponding Author:Ivana Gavrilovic, Department of Periodontology, Dental Clinic, Zagarolo (RM), Italy.
Received: February 26, 2020; Published: March 06, 2020




Abstract

Keywords: Tooth; Dentin; Cytokines; Cell Communication; Osteoconduction; Osteoinduction; Bone Engineering

In this conceptual review, we have compiled many of the important research findings in genetics and molecular control of bone and tooth formation. We have reviewed a brief assessment of cytokine’s role, important for control both of dentin and bone engineering.

During clinical work practitioners need natural or artificial bone equivalents. Presently on the market could be find countless types of heterogenous bone, but of dubious quality and in situ acceptability. The autogenous bone biomaterials would contribute to the best new bone augmentation. Recently, it is shown that dentin contains bone and cartilage-inducing factors that facilitate chondro-osteogenesis and modify the calcification process [1]. Nevertheless, dentine-pulp demonstrates strong regenerative potential which allows it to respond to disease and traumatic injury. Such activities are strongly influenced by cell-matrix interactions and modified by disease processes, including infection and inflammation. During embryological development of the dentin (tooth) and bone comparable organic deposition and mineralization procedures occurred. Odontoblasts, as a main tooth-dentin creating cells fabricate and assemble collagenous and NCP (non-collagenous matrix protein) during dentin generation. Dentin may be regarded as a mineralized connective tissue, same as bone. In its composition as well as its mode of formation, dentin exhibits several similarities with bone, but also specific differences. The dentin organic phase, the matrix, determines its morphology and is believed to be actively involved in the formation of the mineral phase [2]. The identification of many bioactive molecules within dentine organic matrix (Table) has allowed better understanding of regenerative and other tissue responses towards novel clinical therapies, such as bone engineering [3]. A fibrous mesh of collagen type I dominates the organic matrix. Also, minor amounts of other collagen types may be present. The non-collagenous proteins (NCPs), which constitute about 10% of the matrix, fall into several categories: phosphoproteins, Gla‐proteins of the osteocalcin type as well as matrix Gla‐protein, proteoglycans, different acidic glycoproteins, and serum proteins [4]. These NPCs matrix proteins may be mediators of cell-matrix interactions, matrix maturation, and final mineralization. Comparably, dentin and bone contains interchangeably organic and non-organic substrates. Organic residues of bone and dentin are almost identical. Both tissues are mineralized even they have different structural evolution. Regenerative capacities are significant and foremost for bone engineering. Dentin in form od DDM (demineralized dentin matrix) is lack of cells but predominant with cytokines and growth factors, necessary for intensive cell to cell communication, secretion and ending with mineralization [5,6].

Citation: Anka Letic Gavrilovic and Ivana Gavrilovic. “Cytokine’s and Growth Factors from Bone and Dentine Extracellular Matrix as Regulators of Bone Engineering”. EC Dental Science 19.4 (2020): 17-19.

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