Volume 17 Issue 9 - 2018
Some Important Facts about the Periodontal Disease
Ambarkova Vesna*
Department for Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia
*Corresponding Author: Ambarkova Vesna, Department for Preventive and Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, University Ss. Cyril and Methodius, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia.
Received: August 13, 2018; Published: August 13, 2018


The periodontal disease is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of microbial origin, which acts on the supporting tooth tissues, including the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. The most common form of periodontal disease is the mild form of gingivitis, which is the precursor of periodontitis as the most severe disease in this group and is defined as the apical extension of gingival inflammation, affecting parodontium. The parodontium is a specialized connective tissue that surrounds the root of the tooth and has a role in fixing the tooth for the jaw bone, in the amortization of the mechanical pressure that occurs in chewing and speech, but also in the formation and resorption of bone tissue. Its composition includes gingiva and periodontal ligament, such as soft tissue and alveolar bone and cement (enamel) as solid tissue [1].

The periodontal disease is initiated and aggregated by Gram-negative, anaerobic or micro-aerophilic bacteria that colonize the subgingival sulcus. The bacteria initiate the immune response of the host and destroy the tissues that provide the support of the tooth which leads to apical migration of the gingival tissues, loss of periodontal attachment, and an increase in the depth of the periodontal pocket. The most exposed to the action of plaque microbes is the connection between the gingiva and the tooth, that is, the outer gingival epithelium that communicates with the bone tissue of the jaw through the periodontal ligament [2]. By forming periodontal pockets, conversion of the joint epithelium into the pocket epithelium occurs and culminates with the loss of teeth.

There is a theory that periodontal disease is a pathological manifestation of the host’s immune response directed against the bacterial challenge of sub-gingival biofilm. The degree of tissue damage depends on the interaction between host defense mechanisms and biofilm. The host response is mainly determined by genetic factors, the environment, systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, rheumatic diseases and acquired factors, such as smoking, and emotional stress [3,4].


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Citation: Ambarkova Vesna. “Some Important Facts about the Periodontal Disease”. EC Dental Science 17.9 (2018): 1475-1478.

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