Research Article
Volume 17 Issue 6 - 2018
Effect of the Duration of Hemodialysis Treatment on Halitosis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease
Anna Nenova-Nogalcheva1, Desislava Konstantinova2*, Petia Pechalova3 and Daniela Andonova4
1Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria
2Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria
3Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University - Plovdiv, Bulgaria
4Department of Psychology, Varna Free University, Bulgaria
*Corresponding Author: Desislava Konstantinova, Department of Prosthetic Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University, Varna, Bulgaria.
Received: March 20, 2018; Published: May 21, 2018
Citation: Desislava Konstantinova., et al. “Effect of the Duration of Hemodialysis Treatment on Halitosis in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease”. EC Dental Science 17.6 (2018): 868-873.
Abstract
Introduction: Unpleasant mouth odor, known as halitosis, is an oral manifestation commonly observed in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing hemodialysis treatment.
Aim of the Study: The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of the hemodialysis duration on halitosis in CKD patients.
Material and Methods: The study was targeted at 70 end-stage CKD patients from the northeast of Bulgaria, aged 32-89 years, undergoing chronic dialysis treatment of different duration. Halitosis was measured objectively as well as subjectively. The degree of halitosis was objectively recorded with FitScan Breath Checker (HC-212SF, Tanita Corporation, USA). The device measured the content of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) and hydrocarbons from the mouth-exhaled breath, taking readings in 5 degrees: 0 - no odor, 1 - slight odor, 2 - moderate odor, 3 - heavy odor, 4 - strong odor, 5 - intense odor. The subjective method entailed data collection by means of a questionnaire, asking the participants: “Do you have any complaints about bad breath in the mouth?” The answering options needed to be either Yes or No.
Results: The subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on the duration of the hemodialysis treatment they had underwent: Group 1 (dialysis treatment > 5 years) and Group 2 (dialysis treatment < 5 years). The FitScan Breath Checker found halitosis in all patients, where nearly half of them (48.60%, 34 patients) exhibited halitosis of the 4th degree. Patients with 2nd degree halitosis in Group 1 were found to be significantly more than patients from Group 2 (5:1.5 ratio), whereas in patients with the 5th degree halitosis the ratio was 1:5. A statistically significant positive correlation was established between the duration of hemodialysis and halitosis (rs = 0.28, p = 0.019). However, there was no evidence of correlation between halitosis obtained with the FitScan device and the participants’ subjective perception of bad breath (χ2 = 3.807, p = 0.433). There was no statistically significant dependence between the duration of treatment and the patients’ subjective responses (t = 1.525, p = 0.132).
Conclusion: The duration of hemodialysis treatment proved to have a statistically significant effect on the objectively detected halitosis. There was no statistically reliable dependence between the subjective sense of unpleasant mouth breath and the objectively present halitosis.
Keywords: CKD; Duration of Hemodialysis; Halitosis; Objective and Subjective Study of Halitosis
Copyright: © 2018 Desislava Konstantinova., et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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