Editorial
Volume 17 Issue 2 - 2018
Re-visiting Alveolar Osteitis: The “Post-Extraction Socket Lavage” Dilemma!
Ziyad S Haidar1-4*
1BioMAT’X, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, Chile
2Plan de Mejoramiento Institucional (PMI) en Innovación I+D+i, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, Chile
3Programa de Doctorado en BioMedicina, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, Chile
4Centro de Investigación Biomédica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago, Chile
*Corresponding Author: Ziyad S Haidar, Professor and Scientific Director, Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Los Andes, Santiago de Chile. Founder and Head of BioMAT’X, Biomedical Research Center (CIB), PMI I+D+i, Department for Research, Development and Innovation, Universidad de Los Andes, Mons, Álvaro del Portillo, Las Condes, Santiago, Chile.
Received: December 29, 2017; Published: January 08, 2018
Citation: Ziyad S Haidar. “Re-visiting Alveolar Osteitis: The “Post-Extraction Socket Lavage” Dilemma!”. EC Dental Science 17.2 (2018): 27-29.
Keywords: Alveolar Osteitis; Drug Delivery Systems; Dry Socket; Inflammation; Irrigation; Regeneration; Osteogenesis; Saline; Grafts
Exodontia is one of the most common dental procedures, practiced daily in clinics and hospitals around the World. Generally, the resulting extraction socket (following the removal of a tooth or teeth from the dental alveolus within the alveolar bone of the maxillary and mandibular jaws) heals uneventfully; where a properly formed fibrin clot undergoes organisation, vascularisation and gradual replacement with bone through an osteoproliferation process, post-extraction. However, alveolar defects will still only become partially restored. This is due to the fact that most extractions are traumatic and are done with no regard for maintaining the integrity of the alveolar ridge; especially common, in under-developed and developing countries. Whether due to caries, trauma or advanced periodontal disease, which are often present in all oral cavities, exodontia and subsequent healing of the socket will result in osseous deformities of the alveolar ridge. There is well-documented, resorption of the alveolar bone ridges and loss of vertical ridge height and width, which is known to result in a narrower and shorter ridge, and consequently, deformation of facial aesthetics. As aesthetics have received more emphasis with treatment planning, within the past decade, resorption of the alveolar ridge following tooth extraction, especially in the anterior region has become a significant problem. For example, after tooth removal, the dental team faces the challenge of creating a prosthetic estoration (conventional bridge or an implant-supported crown) that blends with the adjacent natural dentition. Such clinically-significant challenges often result in requiring time-consuming secondary surgeries and the use of costly barrier membranes, bone grafts and/or bone grafting substitutes, prior to finalizing the prosthetic restoration. Furthermore, alveolar osteitis or fibrinolytic alveolitis, referred to as “dry socket” (a term first used by Crawford in 1896), remains amongst the most commonly encountered complications following routine extraction or even the surgical removal of teeth by general dentists as well as specialists. The most recent definition of dry socket describes the condition as post-operative pain inside and around the extraction site, which increases in severity at any time between the first and third day post-extraction, accompanied by a partial or total disintegration of the blood clot within the alveolar socket (due to an increased fibrinolytic activity or fibrinolysis that destroys the blood clot early). The development of this condition leads to excruciating pain, foul breath or halitosis, unpleasant taste, empty socket, gingival inflammation and lymphadenopathy. While the exact pathogenesis of dry socket is not well understood rendering no possible treatment, incidence is mainly attributed to difficulty of extraction procedure (i.e. trauma), lack of dentist’s experience, association with systemic diseases, smoking, bacterial infection due to poor oral hygiene, among other factors. Hence, the frequency of the condition continues to increase; for routine dental extractions (around 5% - 25%), after extraction of mandibular third molars (around 40% - 55%) and surgical extractions resulting in about 10 times higher incidence.
Copyright: © 2018 Ziyad S Haidar. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


News and Events

Best Article of the Issue

The Editors of respective journals will elect one Best Article after each issue release and the authors of the selected article will be provided with a certificate of "Best Article of the Issue".

Submission Timeline for April Issue

E-Cronicon delightfully welcomes the authors for submission of novel research towards June issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before May 09, 2019.

Certification for each Publication

Corresponding Authors will be issued a "Publication Certificate" with all the Co-Authors included as a token of appreciation for publishing their work with respective journals.

Certifying for Review

E-Cronicon certify the Editors for their first review done towards respective journals.

Latest Articles

Recently published articles will be updated immediately after publication in respective journals.