Review Article
Volume 7 Issue 2 - 2020
HDFx and Magnesium in Combination Ameliorates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension: Relevance to Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension in Humans and Newborns and the Roles of Hypomagnesemia, Ceramides and PAF
Burton M Altura1-7*, Asefa Gebrewold1, Anthony Carella1, Nilank C Shah1,5, Joseph C Marcus8, Robert Evans9 and Bella T Altura1,3-7
1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA
2Department of Medicine, The State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA
3The Center for Cardiovascular and Muscle Research, The State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA
4The School of Graduate Studies in Molecular and Cellular Science, The State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA
5Bio-Defense Systems, Inc, Rockville Centre, New York, USA
6Orient Biomedica, Estero, Florida, USA
7The Health Foundation for Magnesium Research, Patterson, California, USA
8Department of Neurology, State University of New York Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA
9Department of Medicine, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, USA
*Corresponding Author: Burton M Altura, Professor, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York, USA.
Received: December 16, 2019; Published: January 09, 2020




Abstract

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) not only causes major problems for the lungs, but the heart as well. In newborns, this often produces a syndrome of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) with mortalities approaching 80%. In order to better understand and treat PAH and PPHN, animal models have been employed for more than 50 years, yielding very important data and some new therapeutic approaches. Our group has been studying these diseases using monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH for more than 30 years. During these years, we have discovered a brand- new host-defense factor, HDFx, which displays remarkable anti-inflammatory properties along with the ability to accelerate wound healing. Numerous investigators have utilized magnesium (Mg) salts in the treatment of experimental PAH and PPHN. In this review, we present new findings on the successful use of combined therapy of HDFx and Mg in the treatment and prevention of MCT-induced PAH. We discuss our new findings on why hypomagnesemia, ceramides and platelet-activating factor (PAF) probably play important roles in the initiation of both experimental MCT-induced PAH and PPHN. We also review a number of studies which demonstrate some of the underlying mechanisms whereby this combined therapy is protective in MCT -induced PAH. We conclude that this new combined therapy might be successfully employed to treat clinical PAH and PPHN in newborns.

Keywords: Monocrotaline; NF-kB; Proto-Oncogenes; Ceramide; Platelet-Activating Factor (PAF); Sphingolipids, Calcium

References

  1. Stringham R and Shah NR. “Pulmonary arterial hypertension: An update on diagnosis and treatment”. American Family Physician 82.4 (2010): 370-377.
  2. Firth AL., et al. “Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension”. Disease Models and Mechanisms 3.5-6 (2010): 268-273.
  3. Runo JR and Loyd JE. “Primary pulmonary hypertension”. Lancet 361 (2003): 1533-1544.
  4. Simonneau G., et al. “Updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 62.5 (2013): D34.
  5. Lalich H and Ehrhart LA. “Monocrotaline -induced pulmonary arteritis in rats”. Journal of Atherosclerosis Research 2 (1962): 482-488.
  6. Kay JM and Heath D. “Observations on the pulmonary arteries and heart weight of rats fed Crotolaria spectabilis seeds”. The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology 92.2 (1966): 385-394.
  7. Kay JM. “Crotolaria (Monocrotaline) pulmonary hypertensiom. The fiftieth anniversary”. Chest 152.2 (2017): 1117-1119.
  8. Schultze AE., et al. “Early indications of monocrotaline pyrrole-induced lung injury in rats”. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 109.1 (1991): 41-50.
  9. Wilson DW., et al. “Mechanisms and pathology of monocrotaline pulmonary toxicity”. Critical Reviews in Toxicology 22.5-6 (1992): 307-325.
  10. Hill NS., et al. “Fifty years of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. What it has meant to the field?” Chest 152.6 (2017): 1106-1108.
  11. Gomez-Arroyo JG., et al. “The monocrotaline model of pulmonary hypertension in perspective”. The American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 302 (2012): L363-L369.
  12. Mathew R., et al. “Magnesium aspartate hydrochloride attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary artery hypertension”. Clinical Science 75.6 (1988): 661-667.
  13. Mathew R., et al. “Strain differences in pulmonary hypertensive response to monocrotaline alkaloid and the beneficial effect of oral magnesium treatment”. Magnesium 8.2 (1989): 110-116.
  14. Mathew R., et al. “Pulmonary vasculature in monocrotaline-induced hypertensive rats on magnesium therapy”. Microcirculation, Endothelium, and Lymphatics 6.4 (1990): 267-283.
  15. Altura BM., et al. “A novel biologic immunomodulator, HDFx, protects against lethal hemorrhage, endotoxins and traumatic injury: potential relevance to emerging diseases”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 2 (2009): 266-279.
  16. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: a novel biologic immunomodulator is therapeutically-effective in hemorrhagic and intestinal-ischemic shock: Importance of microcirculatory -immunological interactions and their potential implications for the warfighter and disaster victims”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 4 (2011): 331-340.
  17. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: a novel immunomodulator accelerates wound healing and is suggestive of unique regenerative powers for the warfighter and disaster victims”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 5 (2012): 289-295.
  18. Metchnikoff E. “Untersuchung ueber die intracellulare Verdauung beiwirbellosen Thieren”. Ardbeiten aus dem Zoologischesen Institut Wien 5 (1884): 141-168.
  19. Altura BM. “Sex and estrogens in protection against circulatory stress reactions”. American Journal of Physiology 231 (1976): 842-847.
  20. Altura BM. “Reticuloendothelial cells and host defense”. Adv Microcirculation 9 (1980): 252-294.
  21. Ulevitch RJ., et al. “The role of the macrophage in host defense to bacterial endotoxins”. In: The Pathophysiology of Combined Injury and Shock 5 (1983): 87-92.
  22. Altura BM. “Microcirculatory regulation and dysfunction: relation to RS function and resistance to shock and trauma”. In: The Reticuloendothelial System. Reichard S, Filkins eds. Plenum Press, New York 7 (1985): 353-395.
  23. Altura BM. “Endothelial and reticuloendothelial cell function: roles in injury and low-flow states”. In The Scientific Basis for the Care of the Critically Ill. Little RA, Frayn KN, eds. Manchester University Press, Manchester, UK (1986): 259-274.
  24. Majno G and Joris I. “Cells, Tissues and Diseases”. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York (2004).
  25. Angele MK and Chaudry IH. “Surgical trauma and immunosuppression: Pathophysiology and potential immunomodulatory approaches”. Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery 390 (2005): 334-341.
  26. Caligiuri MA. “Human natural killer cells”. Blood 112 (2008): 461-469.
  27. Altura BM. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator and potential superbug super warrior for hospitalized patients and battle field casualties”. International Journal of Vaccine Research 3 (2016): 1-3.
  28. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator for the amelioration of hypovolemic shock in the OR, cancer patients and on the battlefield”. Journal of Clinical Medicine and Therapeutics 1 (2016): 003.
  29. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A novel biologic immune modulator may have the potential to prevent bacteria in space from becoming aggressively infectious and lethal”. Clinical Research and Trials 3.3 (2017): 1-3.
  30. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Use of HDFx, a novel immunomodulator, to stop the germs from winning in hospitals and on the battlefields: The dangers of antibiotic resistance”. International Journal of Vaccine Research (2017).
  31. Altura BM and Altura BT. “HDFx: A novel biologic immuno-modulator for potential control and treatment of NK cell and macrophage dysfunction in drug-resistant tuberculosis”. Madridge Journal of Immunology 1.1 (2017): 13-15.
  32. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A recently discovered biologic and its potential use in prevention and treatment of hemorrhagic fever viruses and antibiotic-resistant superbugs”. Journal of Hematology and Thromboembolic Diseases 4 (2016): 252. 
  33. Altura BM and Altura BT. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator and potential fighter against cytokine storms in viral flu infections”. SciFed Journal of Flu Science 1.1 (2017): 1000001.
  34. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A novel immunomodulator and potential fighter against cytokine storms in inflammatory and septic conditions in dogs and farm animals”. Veterinary Health Science and Research 5.2 (2017): 1-3.
  35. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Why a recently -discovered host-defense factor, HDFx, may ameliorate and prevent inflammatory lesions induced by sarcoidosis”. Madridge Journal of Immunology 2.1 (2018): 40-42. 
  36. Tanino Y. “Monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in animals”. Nihon Rinsho 59.6 (2001): 1076-1080.
  37. Mathew R. “Pulmonary hypertension: Endothelial cell function, Chapter 1”. In: Pulmonary Hypertension-From Bench Research to Clinical Challenges, Sulica R, Preston I, eds. Intech Open, New York (2011).
  38. Altura BM., et al. “HDFx: A recently discovered biologic ameliorates pulmonary arterial hypertension and cytokine storms induced by monocrotaline in rats” (2018).
  39. Altura BM., et al. “Combined therapy with magnesium and HDFx ameliorates pulmonary artery hypertension induced by monocrotaline in rats” (2018).
  40. Altura BM., et al. “Oral administration of Mg ameliorates the entry and intracellular release of Ca2+ in pulmonary hypertension produced by monocrotaline” (2018).
  41. Altura BM and Altura BT. “New perspectives on the role of magnesium in the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. I. Clinical aspects”. Magnesium 4 (1985): 226-244.
  42. Abu-Osba YK. “Treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: update”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 66.1 (1991): 74-77.
  43. Abu-Osa YK., et al. “Treatment of severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn with MgSO4”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 67 (1992): 31-35.
  44. Tolsa JT., et al. “MgSO4 as an alternative and safe treatment for severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn”. Archives of Disease in Childhood 72 (1995): 184-187.
  45. Fawcett WJ., et al. “Magnesium: physiology and pharmacology”. British Journal of Anaesthesia 83.2 (1999): 302-320.
  46. Chandran S., et al. “Use of magnesium sulfate in severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn”. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics 50.4 (2004): 219-223.
  47. Daffa SH and Milaat WA. “Role of magnesium sulphate in treatment of severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn”. Saudi Medical Journal 23.10 (2002): 1266-1269.
  48. Altura BT., et al. “Characterization of a new ion selective electrode for ionized magnesium in whole blood, plasma, serum and aqueous samples”. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 54.217 (1994): 21-36.
  49. Evans R., et al. “Altered ionized magnesium and calcium in patients with pulmonary hypertension”. Chest 110.4 (1996).
  50. Marcus JC., et al. “Serum ionized magnesium in premature and term infants”. Pediatric Neurology 18.4 (1998): 311-314.
  51. Marcus JC., et al. “Serum ionized magnesium in post-traumatic headaches”. The Journal of Pediatrics 139 (2001): 459-462.
  52. Altura BM and Lewenstam. “Unique Magnesium-Sensitive Ion Selective Electrodes”. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 54.217 (1994): 1-100.
  53. Altura BM. “Importance of magnesium in physiology and medicine and the need for ion selective electrodes”. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 54.217 (1994): 5-10.
  54. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Role of magnesium in patho-physiological processes and the clinical utility of magnesium ion selective electrodes”. Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 224 (1996): 211-234.
  55. Emila S and Swaaminathan S. “Role of magnesium in health and disease”. Journal of Experimental Science 4.2 (2013): 32-43.
  56. Long S and Romani AMP. “Role of magnesium in human diseases”. Austin journal of nutrition and food sciences 2.10 (2014): 32-43.
  57. Li JF., et al. “Peroxynitrite induces apoptosis and decline of intracellular free Mg2+ with concomitant elevation in [Ca2+]I in rat aortic smooth muscle cells: possible roles of extracellular and intracellular magnesium ions in peroxynitrite-induced cell death”. Drug Metabolism Letters 1 (2007): 85-89.
  58. Altura BM., et al. “Short-term magnesium deficiency results in decreased levels of serum sphingomyelin, lipid peroxidation, and apoptosis”. The American Journal of Physiology - Heart and Circulatory Physiology 297 (2009): H86-H92.
  59. Tejero -Taldo MI., et al. “Chronic dietary magnesium deficiency induces cardiac apoptosis in the rat heart”. Magnesium Research 20 (2007): 208-2012.
  60. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Magnesium and cardiovascular biology: an important link between cardiovascular risk factors and atherogenesis”. Cellular and Molecular Biology Research 41 (1995): 347-359.
  61. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Magnesium: forgotten mineral in cardiovascular biology and atherogenesis”. In: New Perspectives in Magnesium Research, Nishizawa N, Morii H, Durlach J. eds (2007): 239-260.
  62. Altura BM., et al. “Regulated RIPK3 necroptosis is produced in cardiovascular tissues and cells in dietary magnesium deficiency: roles of cytokines and their potential importance in inflammation and atherogenesis”. Journal of Medical and Surgical Pathology 2.3 (2016): 
  63. Altura BT., et al. “Regulated ferroptosis cell death is produced in cardiovascular tissues and cells in dietary magnesium deficiency: Initiation of roles of glutathione, mitochondrial alterations and lipid peroxidation in inflammation and atherogenesis”. EC Pharmacology and Toxicology 6.7 (2018): 535-541.
  64. Altura BM and Altura BT. “Magnesium in cardiovascular biology and medicine”. Scientific American Science and Medicine 2 (1995): 28-37.
  65. Mosfegh A., et al. “What We Eat in America. NHANES 2005-2006: Usual Nutrient Intakes from Food and Water Compared to 1997 Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D, Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesium”. US Department of Agricultural Research, Washington, DC (2009).
  66. Dean C. The Magnesium Miracle. Ballantine Books. New York (2017).
  67. Altura BM. “Pharmacology of the microcirculation”. In: The Microcirculation, Effros EM, Ditzel J, Schimd-Schoinbein H, eds. Academic Press, new York (1981): 51-105.
  68. Altura BM., et al. “Mg2+-Ca2+interaction in contractility of vascular smooth muscle: Mg2+ versus organic calcium channel blockers on myogenic and agonist-induced responsiveness of blood vessels”. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 65 (1987): 729-745.
  69. Mathew R and Altura BM. “Magnesium and the lungs”. Magnesium 7 (1988): 173-187.
  70. Villamor E., et al. “In vitro effects of magnesium sulfate in isolated intrapulmonary and mesenteric arteries of piglets”. Pediatric Research 39 (1996): 1107-1112.
  71. Chand N and Altura BM. “Acetylcholine and bradykinin relax intrapulmonary arteries by acting on endothelial cells: Role in lung vascular diseases”. Science 213: 1376-1379.
  72. Altura BM and Chand N. “Bradykinin induced relaxation of renal and pulmonary arteries is dependent upon intact endothelial cells”. British Journal of Pharmacology 74 (1981): 10-11.
  73. Altura BT and Altura BM. “Endothelium-dependent relaxation in coronary arteries requires magnesium ions”. British Journal of Pharmacology 91 (1987): 449-451.
  74. Baeuerle PA and Baltimore D. “NF-kB: ten years after”. Cell 87.1 (1996): 15-20.
  75. Hayden MS and Ghosh S. “NF-kB in immunobiology”. Cell Research 21.2 (2011): 233-244.
  76. Intengan HD and Schffrin EL. “Vascular remodeling in hypertension: roles of apoptosis, inflammation, and fibrosis”. Hypertension 38(3 Part 2) (2001): 581-587.
  77. Kumar V., et al. “Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease”. (8th edition.) Saunders, Philadelphia (2010): 487-506.
  78. Altura BM., et al. “Expression of the nuclear factor-kB and proto-oncogenes c-Fos and C-Jun are induced by low extracellular Mg2+in aortic and cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells: Possible links to hypertension, atherogenesis and stroke”. American Journal of Hypertension 16 (2003): 701-707.
  79. Altura BM., et al. “Short-term magnesium deficiency upregulates ceramide synthase in cardiovascular tissues and cells: cross-talk among cytokines, Mg2+, NF-kB and de novo ceramide”. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 302 (2012): 319-332.
  80. Altura BM., et al. “Short-term Mg-deficiency upregulates protein kinase C isoforms in cardiovascular tissues and cells relation to NF-KB, cytokines, ceramide salvage sphingolipid pathway and PKC-zeta: hypothesis and review”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 7 (2014): 1-21.
  81. Li L., et al. “Inhibition of nuclear factor-kB in the lungs prevents monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension in mice”. Hypertension 63 (2014): 1260-1269.
  82. Morrill GA., et al. “Mg2+modulates membrane lipids in vascular smooth muscle: a link to atherogenesis”. FEBS Letters 408 (1997): 191-197.
  83. Morrill GA., et al. “Mg2+ modulates membrane sphingolipids and lipid second messengers in vascular smooth muscle cells.” FEBS Letters 440 (1998): 167-171.
  84. Altura BM., et al. “Magnesium deficiency upregulates serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT 1 and SPT 2) in cardiovascular tissues: relationship to serum ionized Mg and cytochrome C”. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 299 (2010): H932-H938.
  85. Altura BM., et al. “Short-term magnesium deficiency upregulates sphingomyelin synthase and p53in cardiovascular tissues and cells: relevance to de novo synthesis of ceramide”. American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 299 (2010): H2046-H2055.
  86. Altura BM., et al. “The expression of platelet-activating factor is induced by low extracellular Mg2+ in aortic, cerebral and neonatal coronary vascular smooth muscle : cross-talk with ceramide production, NF-kB and proto-oncogenes: Possible links to atherogenesis and sudden cardiac death in children and infants, and aging Hypothesis, review and viewpoint”. International Journal of Cardiovascular Research 3.1 (2016) 47-67. 
  87. Altura BM., et al. “Magnesium deficiency upregulates sphingomyelinases in cardiovascular tissues and cells: cross-talk among proto-oncogenes, Mg2+, NF-kB and ceramide and their potential relationships to resistant hypertension, atherogenesis and cardiac failure”. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 6.10 (2013): 861-879.
  88. Petrache I., et al. “Involvement of ceramide in cell death responses in the pulmonary circulation”. Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 8 (2011): 492-496. 
  89. Haimovitz-Friedman A., et al. “Ceramide signaling in apoptosis”. BMJ Journals 53.3 (1997): 539-553.
  90. Hannun YA and Obeid LM. “The ceramide-centric universe of lipid-mediated cell regulation: stress encounters of the lipid kind”. The Journal of Biological Chemistry 277.29 (2002): 25847-25850.
  91. Auge N., et al. “Sphingomyelin metabolites in vascular signaling and atherosclerosis”. Progress in Lipid Research 39.3 (2000): 207-239.
  92. Pandey S., et al. “Recent advances in immunobiology of ceramide”. Experimental and Molecular Pathology 82.3 (2007): 298-309.
  93. Fruhwirth GO., et al. “Oxidized phospholipids: From molecular properties to disease”. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1772.7 (2007): 718-736.
  94. Prescott SM., et al. “Platelet-activating factor and related lipid mediators”. Annual Review of Biochemistry 69 (2000): 419-445.
  95. Montrcchio G., et al. “Role of platelet-activating factor in cardiovascular pathophysiology”. Physiological Reviews 80.4 (2000): 1669-1699.
  96. Zimmerman GA., et al. “The platelet-activating factor signaling system and its regulation in syndromes of inflammation and thrombosis”. Critical Care Medicine 305.5 (2002): S294-S301.
  97. Caplan MS., et al. “Circulating plasma platelet activating factor in persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn”. The American Review of Respiratory Disease 142.1 (1990). 
  98. Altura BM., et al. “Selective PAF-receptor antagonists ameliorate monocrotaline experimental pulmonary hypertension” (2018).
Citation: Burton M Altura., et al. “HDFx and Magnesium in Combination Ameliorates Experimental Pulmonary Hypertension: Relevance to Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension in Humans and Newborns and the Roles of Hypomagnesemia, Ceramides and PAF”. EC Cardiology 7.2 (2020): 01-10.

PubMed Indexed Article


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777


EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033


EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992


EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505


EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793


EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211


EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047


EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560


EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318


EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819


EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840


EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476


EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658


EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489


EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278


EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108


EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571


EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333


EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883


EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001


EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937


EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723


EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726


EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603


EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646


EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226


EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812


EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268


News and Events


January Issue Release

We Always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released January issue for the respective journals and can be viewed in the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for March Issue

E-Cronicon delightfully welcome all the authors around the globe for an effective collaboration with an article submission for the March issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before January 31, 2020.

Certificate of Publication

E-Cronicon honours with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

E-Cronicon certify the Editors for their first review done towards assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

Latest articles will be updated immediately in the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

Prime moto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation in order to avoid the inconvenience. For an immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to editor@ecronicon.uk