Review Article
Volume 7 Issue 1 - 2020
Design, Development, FEM Analysis of Hybrid 12/14 BSRM for Saispandan- Bearing-Less Magnetic Indian Total Artificial Heart for Destination Therapy (DT)
Pradeep Kumar Radhakrishnan1*, Sujatha Mohanty2, Pulivarthi Nageshwar Rao1, Siva Krishna Rao GV1, Nagesh Kumar1, Bisoi AK2, Siva Prasad1, Satya Narayana Murthy1, Satya Narayana MRS1, Ravi Shankar1, Srinivas1, Das PK3, Valluvan Jeevanandam4 and Venugopal P2
1Gitam University, India
2AIIMS, India
3IIT Kharagpur, India
4University of Chicago, USA
*Corresponding Author: Pradeep Kumar Radhakrishnan, Gitam University, India.
Received: December 09, 2019; Published: December 23, 2019


Rotor vibration control during start-up, acceleration and deceleration phases are one of the key problems besides stable levitation, in high-speed applications of bearing less switched reluctance motor (BSRM) [1-3]. Global sliding mode controller (GSMC) is proposed to control the speed and position of BSRM. Sensor less operation is achieved with sliding mode observer. Rotor displacement tracking error functions were used in the sliding mode switching functions. New sliding mode displacement control and speed tracking equations obtained using extra exponential fast decaying nonlinear function and conventional linear sliding mode switching. Simulation is carried on hybrid 12/14 BSRM with the proposed controller and observer. 12 stator poles and 14 rotor poles were selected. Pole arc was 25.71. FEM analysis showed Torque pole arc was 12.85. Air gap length was 0.25 - 0.5 mm. Stator diameters -112/60.2, stator yoke thickness 7.7 mm, shaft diameter of 18 mm, coil width of 4 mm, rotor pole arc of 12.85, axial stack length of 40 mm, rotor yoke thickness of 9.7 mm-were the major design parameters. FEM of motor parameters under different loads for speed, torque load, switching angle, voltage, phase resistance and moment of inertia was performed. Separated single winding, wide suspending force region, higher power density, natural decoupling of torque from suspending force, low magnetic motive force, low core cost of hybrid 12/14 BSRM makes it ideal as motor for total artificial heart as destination therapy.

Keywords: Bearing Less Switched Reluctance Motor (BSRM); Global Sliding Mode Controller (GSMC); FEM Analysis; Destination Therapy (DT)


  1. Morrison CR., et al. “Electromagnetic forces in a hybrid magnetic-bearing switched-reluctance motor”. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 44.12 (2008): 4626-4638.
  2. Sun X., et al. “Core losses analysis of a novel 16/10 segmented rotor switched reluctance BSG motor for HEVs using nonlinear lumped parameter equivalent circuit model”. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 23.2 (2018): 747-757.
  3. Xue XD., et al. “Multi-objective optimization design of in-wheel switched reluctance motors in electric vehicles”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 57.9 (2010): 2980-2987.
  4. Torkaman H., et al. “New double-layer-per-phase isolated switched reluctance motor: Concept, numerical analysis, and experimental confirmation”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics 59.2 (2012): 830-838.
  5. Sun X., et al. “High-performance control for a bearingless permanent-magnet synchronous motor using neural network inverse scheme plus internal model controllers”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 63.6 (2016): 3479-3488.
  6. Asama J., et al. “Proposal and analysis of a novel single-drive bearingless motor”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 60.1 (2013): 129-138. 
  7. Sun XZ., et al. “Internal model control for a bearingless permanent magnet synchronous motor based on inverse system method” IEEE Transactions on Energy Conversion 31.4 (2016): 1539-1548.
  8. Matsuzaki T., et al. “Operational characteristics of an IPM-type bearingless motor with 2-pole motor windings and 4-pole suspension windings”. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 53.6 (2017): 5383-5392.
  9. Sun X., et al. “Overview of bearingless permanent-magnet synchronous motors”. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 60.12 (2013): 5528-5538.
  10. Sun X., et al. “Speed-sensorless vector control of a bearingless induction motor with artificial neural network inverse speed observer”. IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics 18.4 (2013): 1357-1366. 
  11. Cao X., et al. “Advanced control method for single-winding bearingless switched reluctance motor to reduce torque ripple and radial displacement”. Transactions on Energy Conversion 32.4 (2017): 1533-1543.
  12. Wang H., et al. “Control of suspending force in novel permanent-magnet biased bearingless switched reluctance motor”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 62.7 (2015): 4298- 4306.
  13. Cao X., et al. “Independent control of average torque and radial force in bearingless switched-reluctance motors with hybrid excitations”. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 24.5 (2009): 1376-1385.
  14. Liu J., et al. “A novel permanent magnet biased bearingless switched reluctance motor”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 61.12 (2013): 4342-4347.
  15. Wan H., et al. “A Novel bearingless switched reluctance motor with a biased permanent magnet”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 61.12 (2014): 6947-6955. 
  16. Xue B., et al. “Design of novel 12/14 bearingless permanent biased switched reluctance motor”. IEEE International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (2014): 2655- 2660.
  17. Wei P., et al. “Design and analysis of double stator type bearingless switched reluctance motor”. Transactions of the Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers 60.4 (2011): 746-752.
  18. Zhang J., et al. “Multi-objective optimal design of bearingless switched reluctance motor based on multi-objective genetic particle swarm optimizer”. IEEE Transactions on Magnetics 54.1 (2017) 113.
  19. Chen L and W Hofmann. “Speed regulation technique of one bearingless 8/6 switched reluctance motor with simpler single winding structure”. IEEE Industrial Electronics Society 59.6 (2012): 2592- 2600.
  20. Cao X and Z Deng. “A full-period generating mode for bearingless switched reluctance generators”. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity 20.3 (2010): 1072-1076.
  21. Liu J., et al. “Iron loss characteristic for the novel bearingless switched reluctance motor”. IEEE (2013): 586-592.
  22. M Takemoto., et al. “A design and characteristics of switched reluctance type bearingless motors”. In Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Magnetic Suspension Technology (1998): 49-63.
  23. Takemoto A., et al. “Radial force and torque of a bearingless switched reluctance motor operating in a region of magnetic saturation”. IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications 40.1 (2004): 103-112. 
  24. M Takemoto., et al. “Improved analysis of a bearingless switched reluctance motor”. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics 37 (2001): 26-34.
  25. X Cao Z., et al. “Independent control of average torque and radial force in bearingless switched reluctance motors with hybrid excitations”. IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics 24.5 (2009): 1376-1385. 
  26. TW Nehl., et al. “Determination of saturated values of rotation machinery incremental and apparent inductances by an energy perturbation method”. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems 101.12 (1982): 4441-4451. 
  27. Y Gang. “Basis research on a bearingless switched reluctance motor College of Automation Engineering”. [M.S. dissertation], Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, China (Chinese) (2008).
Citation: Pradeep Kumar Radhakrishnan., et al. “Design, Development, FEM Analysis of Hybrid 12/14 BSRM for Saispandan- Bearing-Less Magnetic Indian Total Artificial Heart for Destination Therapy (DT)”. EC Cardiology 7.1 (2020): 01-06.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.