Review Article
Volume 7 Issue 2 - 2020
Cardiovascular Disease and Health
Chakrapani BS1*, Mukul R Fulmali2
1Senior Consultant Cardiologist, Bangalore, India
2Consultant Cardiologist, Bangalore, India
*Corresponding Author: Chakrapani BS, Senior Consultant Cardiologist, Bangalore, India.
Received: December 23, 2019; Published: January 10, 2020


Introduction: The purpose of writing this article is to emphasize the fact that, in the era of gadgets and high end diagnostic facility to diagnose CAD, the epidemiological modules still have an upper hand in diagnosing CAD. The epidemiological data is easily applicable, adaptable, accessible, affordable and large section of population can be covered at one stroke by stratifying the given population into low risk, intermediate risk and high risk. Accordingly, Clinician can advise regarding future course of action. This article is supported by our observational study done in our institute which echoes the epidemiological data. These highly effective modules are also low cost and highly applicable. These also help the policy makers to focus on preventive measures to curtail growing no of CAD patients so that young life can be saved and loss of man hours and productivity can be saved.

We did one observational study 1 to determine risk factors in patients with premature CAD, the same is presented below and review of literature for the said risk factor is done.

Purpose: Asian Indians - those living in India and also the Diasporas have one of the highest rates of coronary artery disease in the world. Among urban Indians the prevalence of CAD is around 10 - 12%.

Aims: To study the risk factors in patients with premature CAD.

Study Design: A prospective observational study was performed to determine cardiovascular risk factors in patients with premature CAD in India.

Methods: All patients with premature coronary artery disease i.e. males < 55 yrs age and females < 65 yrs age were included in the study. The risks factors were assessed in all these patients.

Results: Total 416 patients were taken in the study, 335 were males (80.53%) and 81were females (19.47%). The mean age was found to be 48.45 yrs. The youngest patient was 20 years of age. Low fruits and vegetables in the diet (78.85%), smoking (45.91%), high dietary fat intake (45.67%) were the most frequent risks factors. 47.6% of the patients were on predominantly non vegetarian diet. Family history of CAD was found in 22.12% of the patients. Co morbidities, 50.96% were hypertensive, 50% patients had preexisting diabetes, 25.96% were dyslipidemia and 6.73% hypothyroid on admission. 67.41% patients were in Killip class I, 26.67% in class II, 2.96% in class III and 2.96% in class IV. 68.02% had STEMI, 13.46% had NSTEMI and 9.62% had CSA 8.89% had UA. On coronary angiography 44.47% had SVD, 23.32% DVD 26.20% had TVD and 6.01% had minor CAD. Majority i.e. 53.85% underwent primary PCI, 17.31% were advised elective PCI, 3.13% had recanalized vessel, 2.64% underwent thrombolytic, 10.10% was treated medically and for 12.98% CABG was done.

Conclusion: 1) Smoking is one of the major risk factor for premature CAD. 2) Improper dietary habits are seen in majority of premature CAD patients.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease; Hyperlipidemia; Coronary Artery Disease


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Citation: Chakrapani BS and Mukul R Fulmali. “Cardiovascular Disease and Health”. EC Cardiology 7.2 (2020): 01-08.

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