Review Article
Volume 8 Issue 11 - 2021
Coffee Drinking and the Human Heart: Cardio-Supportive Effects of Accustomed Coffee-Consumption
Nicholas A Kerna1,2*, Sahalia Rashid3, Sudeep Chawla4, ND Victor Carsrud5, Joseph Anderson II6, Kevin D Pruitt7,8, John V Flores9,10 and Hilary M Holets9,10
1SMC-Medical Research, Thailand
2First InterHealth Group, Thailand
3All Saints University School of Medicine, Dominica
4Chawla Health and Research, USA
5Lakeline Wellness Center, USA
6International Institute of Original Medicine, USA
7Kemet Medical Consultants, USA
8PBJ Medical Associates, LLC, USA
9Beverly Hills Wellness Surgical Institute, USA
10Orange Partners Surgicenter, USA
*Corresponding Author: Nicholas A Kerna, (mailing address) POB47 Phatphong, Suriwongse Road, Bangkok, Thailand 10500. Contact:
Received: October 21, 2021; Published: October 30, 2021


Coffee, second only to water, is the most consumed beverage among adults. It is also the primary source of dietary caffeine, having a high antioxidant content. Numerous bioactive compounds are present in coffee. Regular coffee consumption is associated with multiple health benefits, such as reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurogenerative disorders, hepatic diseases, and cardiovascular diseases.

Various extensive epidemiological studies have shown that regular coffee consumption reduces mortality risks for all-cause and cardiovascular events. Contrarily, habitual consumption of coffee can lead to tolerance to caffeine and desensitize adenosine receptors responsible for the lack of pressor effects in these individuals.

Coffee’s adverse effects are linked to its diterpenes, cafestol, and kahweol, which are in high proportions—especially in unfiltered and boiled coffee—causing an elevation in serum and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and increasing the risk of coronary heart disease. However, in filtered and instant coffee, the diterpenes are significantly less. Diterpenes demonstrate hepatoprotective benefits by exerting an antioxidant effect and decreasing the expression of inflammatory markers.

Coffee, when consumed excessively, can have adverse effects, while the benefits of coffee are not evident at a low consumption. Thus, a moderate 3–4 cups per day are recommended to receive optimal advantages—especially cardio-supportive effects. Furthermore, moderate consumption in people with a history of heart failure does not undermine health.

This review aims to update the reader on recent research regarding the health benefits of chronic coffee intake and its cardiosupportive effects at dietary doses.

Keywords: Antioxidant; Cancer; Caffeine; Cardiovascular; Neurodegenerative; Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease; Parkinson’s Disease; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


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Citation: Kerna NA, Rashid S, Chawla S, Carsrud NDV, Anderson II J, Pruitt KD, Flores JV, Holets HM. “Coffee Drinking and the Human Heart: Cardio-Supportive Effects of Accustomed Coffee-Consumption”. EC Cardiology 8.11 (2021): 30-38.

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