Volume 8 Issue 7 - 2021
Communication in Medicine: Part II: Medical Communication and the Relationship with the Patient
Giuseppe Gullace1* and Luciano Peirone2
1Consultant Cardiologist, Multimedica di Limbiate (MB), Former Director of the Dipartimento Cardiovascolare, of the Dipartimento Coordinamento delle Attività Specialistiche Territoriali and of Cardiologia Riabilitativa of Azienda Ospedaliera della Provincia di Lecco, Former Adjunct Professor of Cardiologia, University of Florence, Florence, Italy
2Psychotherapistm, Former Adjunct Professor of Psicologia Clinica e della Salute-Benessere, University “G. d’Annunzio” of Chieti-Pescara and University of Brescia, Brescia, Italy
*Corresponding Author: Giuseppe Gullace, Via San Leonardo 11, 23864 Malgrate (Lecco), Italy.
Received: June 01, 2021; Published: June 26, 2021

...it seems to me that, speaking of this art (Medicine), we should say things that are understandable to the profanes...



In this second part of the paper we deal with the communication in Medicine and ways of information transmission to patients, their relatives and general people, evidentiating the mechanism underlying the process, defining some modalities of communication and its psychological and social aspects and emphasizing some critical issues. Moreover, a wide report is done on the relationship with the patient and the factors that may influence it.


  1. Hippocrates of Cos. “The Oath”. Loeb Classic Library 147 (1923): 298-299.
  2. Hippocrates D. “In: Jones WHS, translator”. Hippocrates. Volume II. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (1923): 297.
  3. Ippocrate - Sull’arte, in Opere 461.
  4. Watzlawick P. “La realtà della realtà”. Casa Editrice Astrolabio. Ubaldini Editore, Roma (1976): 7.
  5. Gullace G., et al. “Hippocrates’ Dream. What has Hippocratic Revolution Left in Modern Medicine”. Journal of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Therapy 2 (2019): 1-14.
  6. Harrison TR. “Introduction, In Principles of Internal Medicine”. First edition, The Bleckiston Company, Philadelphia (1950): 1.
  7. Morris Ch. “Segni, linguaggio e comportamento”. Longanesi, Milano 1963 (1946).
  8. Watzlawick P., et al. “Pragmatica della comunicazione umana”. Casa Editrice Astrolabio Ubaldini Editore, Roma (1971).
  9. Eco U. “Trattato di semiotica generale”. Bompiani, Milano (1975).
  10. Ogden CK and Richards IA. “Il significato del significato: studio dell'influsso del linguaggio sul pensiero e della scienza del simbolismo”. Il Saggiatore, Milano 1966 (1923).
  11. Victor M. “Cultural competence and holistic practice. Implications for nursing education, practice, and research”. Holistic Nursing Practice 23 (2009): 153-157.
  12. Gullace G and Catena G. “The communication at the time of Covid-19 in Italy”. EC Cardiology7 (2020): 4-7.
  13. Peirone L. “Nuovo coronavirus e resilienza. Strategie contro un nemico invisibile”. Anthropos, Torino (2020).
  14. Sala M and Scaglioni M. “L’altro virus. Comunicazione e disinformazione al tempo del COVID-19”. In roman (2020).
  15. Graziato I. “COVID-19: come comunicare durante un’emergenza sanitaria”. In L. Peirone (Ed.), Nuovo coronavirus e resilienza. Strategie contro un nemico invisibile. Anthropos, Torino (2020): 546-567.
  16. Opere, Roma-Bari, Italy Hippocrates (1978) ‘Prognosis’ in Hippocratic writings. In Lloyd GER edition. Penguin classics. London: Penguin Books (1973): 170-185.
  17. Hippocrates ‘Prognosis’ in Hippocratic writings. In Lloyd GER ed. Penguin classics. London: Penguin Books (1978): 170-185.
  18. Consulta di Bioetica.
  19. Keckley P. “The Decline and Fall of the Doctor-Patient Relationship”. The health care blog (2017).
  20. Park JE. “The Impact of a National Healthcare System on the Doctor-Patient Relationship in Neurology”. Journal of Clinical Neurology3 (2018): 430-431.
  21. Dorr Goold S and Lipkin M Jr. “The Doctor-Patient Relationship Challenges, Opportunities, and Strategies”. Journal of General Internal Medicine1 (1999): S26-S33.
  22. Nilsson PM. “European perspectives in Cardiology”. Circulation (2010): 7-10.
  23. Smith JM. “Personal Privacy: Cultural Concerns”. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (2001): 11250-11254.
  24. Test Salute ottobre (2010): 88.
  25. Stewart MA. “Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: a review”. Canadian Medical Association Journal9 (1995): 1423-1433.
  26. Zolnierek KB and Dimatteo MR. “Physician communication and patient adherence to treatment: a meta-analysis”. Medical Care8 (2009): 826-834.
  27. Smailhodzic E., et al. “Social media use in healthcare: A systematic review of effects on patients and on their relationship with healthcare professionals". BMC Health Services Research 16: 442 (2016).
  28. Bernhardt M., et al. “A social media primer for professionals: digital do’s and don’ts”. Health Promotion Practice2 (2014): 168-172.
  29. IBSA Foundation for Scientific Research: E- Health: Tra bufale e verità: Le Due Facce Della Salute In Rete, Roma (2017).
  30. Aristotele, Opere, Roma-Bari (1973).
  31. Gullace G and Khalaf H. “Preclinical diagnosis and risk assessment of atherosclerosis – At birth? At event? When is best?” European Cardiology3 (2011): 162-164.
  32. Gullace G. “Behavioral cardiovascular risk factors: changing perspective to approach the problem”. Journal of Cardiology and Cardiovascular Therapy1 (2016): 1-5.
  33. Gullace G and De Prospero M. “Stress e fattori di rischio cardiovascolare comportamentali”. SISMED. Cuore (2021).
  34. Gullace G., et al. “Stress Dresses Woman: Sex and Gender Differences”. EC Neurology11 (2020): 01-14.
Citation: Giuseppe Gullace and Luciano Peirone. "Communication in Medicine: Part II: Medical Communication and the Relationship with the Patient”. EC Cardiology 8.7 (2021): 24-32.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.