Mini Review
Volume 8 Issue 4 - 2021
Pulse Synchronized Contractions (PSCs): An Invited Review
Tobin P Mangel1, Katherine Lothman2 and Allen W Mangel2*
1Adult Critical Care Unit, St. George’s Hospital, London. UK
2RTI Health Solutions and Discovery Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA
*Corresponding Author: Allen Mangel, RTI Health Solutions and Discovery Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.
Received: February 12, 2021; Published: March 19, 2021


Cardiovascular diseases represent a significant factor contributing to morbidity and mortality in humans. Marked advancements have occurred in the development of novel therapeutics and procedures intended to improve cardiovascular functioning and reduce mortality rates. One area that continues to have limited diagnostic attention and, therefore, therapeutics is the spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the arterial walls that occur in synchrony with the heartbeat. Pulse synchronized contractions may represent an untapped opportunity for improvement in treatment of cardiovascular disorders. This paper reviews the essence of the literature on pulse synchronized contractions.

Keywords: Cardiovascular System; Vascular Smooth Muscle; Pulse Synchronized Contractions; Neurogenic; Pacemaker


  1. Heyman F. “Comparison of intra-arterially and extra-arterially recorded pulse waves in man and dog”. Acta Medica Scandinavia 157 (1957): 503-510.
  2. Heyman F. “The arterial pulse as recorded longitudinally, radially and intra-arterially on the femoral artery of dogs”. Acta Medica Scandinavia 170 (1961): 77-81.
  3. Heyman F and Stenberg K. “The effect of stellate ganglion block on the relationship between extra- and intra-arterially recorded brachial pulse waves in man”. Acta Medica Scandinavica 171 (1962): 9-11.
  4. Frank O. “Die Grundform des Arteriellen Pulses”. Zeitschrift fur Biologie 37 (1899): 483-526.
  5. Prosser CL and Mangel AW. “Mechanisms of spike and slow wave pacemaker activity in smooth muscle cells”. In: Cellular Pacemakers, Volume 1., ed. D. Carpenter. New York: John Wiley and Sons (1982): 273-301.
  6. Mangel AW., et al. “Contractions of cat Small intestinal smooth muscle in calcium-free solution”. Nature 281 (1979): 582-583.
  7. Mangel AW., et al. “Depolarization-induced contractile activity of smooth muscle in calcium-free solution”. American Journal of Physiology 11 (1982): C36-40.
  8. Marion SB and Mangel AW. “From depolarization-dependent contractions in gastrointestinal smooth muscle to aortic pulse-synchronized contractions”. Clinical and Experimental Cardiology 7 (2014): 61-66.
  9. Mangel A and van Breemen C. “Rhythmic electrical activity in rabbit aorta induced by EGTA”. The Journal of Experimental Biology 90 (1981): 339-342.
  10. Mangel A., et al. “Rhythmic contractile activity of the in vivo rabbit aorta”. Nature 289 (1981): 692-694.
  11. Mangel A., et al. “Control of vascular contractility by the cardiac pacemaker”. Science 215 (1982): 1627-1629.
  12. Mangel A., et al. “Measurement of the in vivo mechanical activity and extracellular Ca-45 exchange in arterial smooth muscle”. In: Vascular Neuroeffector Mechanisms: 4th International Symposium., ed. J. Bevan et al. Raven Press (1983): pp. 347-351.
  13. Sahibzada N., et al. “Rhythmic aortic contractions induced by electrical stimulation in vivo in the rat”. PLOS One7 (2015): 1-10.
  14. Mangel AW. “Does the aortic smooth muscle wall undergo rhythmic contractions during the cardiac cycle?” Experimental and Clinical Cardiology 20 (2014): 6844-6851.
  15. Mangel AW. “A changing paradigm for understanding the behavior of the cardiovascular system”. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Cardiology 8 (2017): 496.
  16. Mangel A and Lothman K. “Emergence of a new paradigm in understanding the cardiovascular system: pulse synchronized contractions”. Cardiovascular Pharmacology 6 (2017): 220.
  17. Mangel AW and Lothman K. “Pulse synchronized contractions (PSCs): a call to action”. Open Journal Cardiology and Heart Disease 1 (2018): OJCHD.000508.
  18. Mangel A and Lothman K. “Emergence of a new paradigm in understanding the cardiovascular system: pulse synchronized contractions.” (Reprinted) Top 10 Contributions on Cardiology”. Avid Sciences Publishers (2018): 2-10.
  19. Mangel AW., et al. “Pulse synchronized contractions: a review”. EC Cardiology 7(2020): 61-66.
Citation: Allen Mangel., et al. “Pulse Synchronized Contractions (PSCs): An Invited Review”. EC Gynaecology 8.4 (2021): 18-21.

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