Research Article
Volume 7 Issue 9 - 2020
Description of the Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Myocardial Infarction
Abid H Laghari1*, Naseer Ahmed2, Marvi Zaur3 and Khawar Abbas Kazmi4
1Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
2Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
3Department of Anatomy, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan
4National Institute of Cardiovascular Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan
*Corresponding Author: Abid H Laghari, Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, The Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
Received: June 01, 2020; Published: August 31, 2020


Objective: To describe the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in acute myocardial infarction.

Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was conducted at Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at Aga Khan University Hospital from 1st June 2017 to 30th November 2018. Adult Patients, who were admitted with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) were assessed for the components of MS including HDL, TG, FBS, BP and WC. Metabolic Syndrome was labeled, if patient had three or more components.

Results: Total 120 AMI (50 STEMI, 70 NSTEMI) patients (79 Males, 41 Females; mean age 62.1 ± 12.98 years) were included and evaluated for MS and its individual components. Overall Metabolic Syndrome was present in 84 patients (70% of total patients; 73% of female and 63% of male patients). The most common component was low HDL (78.3% of total patients), followed by raised BP (71.66% of total patients). The remaining Metabolic Syndrome components, impaired fasting blood sugar levels, increased waist circumference and raised TG levels were present in 65%, 53.3% and 24.16% of total patients respectively.

Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was high (70%) in patients with myocardial infarction. The most frequent component was a low HDL level, followed by a rise in blood pressure.

Keywords: Myocardial Infarction; Metabolic Syndrome; High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL); Blood Pressure


  1. Jafar TH., et al. “Heart disease epidemic in Pakistan: women and men at equal risk”. American Heart Journal 2 (2005): 221-226.
  2. Mathieu P., et al. “Visceral obesity and the heart”. The International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology 5 (2008): 821-836.
  3. Wierzbicki AS., et al. “Waist circumference, metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease in a Pakistani cohort”. International Journal of Cardiology 1 (2008): 77-82.
  4. Ahmad U and Frossard PM. “Coronary heart disease in South Asia: Need to redefine risk”. International Journal of Cardiology 2 (2006): 289-290.
  5. Clavijo LC., et al. “Metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with increased infarct size and in-hospital complications”. Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine 1 (2006): 7-11.
  6. Pristipino C., et al. “Comparison of access-related bleeding complications in women versus men undergoing percutaneous coronary catheterization using the radial versus femoral artery”. The American Journal of Cardiology 9 (2007): 1216-1221.
  7. Balkau B., et al. “International day for the evaluation of abdominal obesity (IDEA): A study of waist circumference, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus in 168 000 primary care patients in 63 countries”. Circulation 116 (2007): 1942-1951.
  8. Kragelund C., et al. “Impact of obesity on long-term prognosis following acute myocardial infarction”. International Journal of Cardiology 1 (2005): 123-131.
  9. Zeller M., et al. “Relation between body mass index, waist circumference, and death after acute myocardial infarction”. Circulation 118 (2008): 482-490.
  10. Zahid N., et al. “High prevalence of obesity, dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome in a rural area in Pakistan”. Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews1 (2008): 13-19.
  11. Zeller M., et al. “Prevalence and impact of metabolic syndrome on hospital outcomes in acute myocardial infarction”. ACC Current Journal Review9 (2005): 6.
  12. Tziomalos K., et al. “Vascular risk factors in South Asians”. International Journal of Cardiology 1 (2008): 5-16.
  13. Lanz JR., et al. “Metabolic syndrome and coronary artery disease: Is there a gender specific effect?” International Journal of Cardiology 3 (2006): 317-321.
  14. Pirat B., et al. “Impaired coronary flow reserve in patients with metabolic syndrome”. Atherosclerosis1 (2008): 112-116.
  15. Dagenais GR., et al. “Prognosticimpact of body weight and abdominal obesity in women and men with cardiovascular disease”. American Heart Journal 149 (2005): 54-60.
  16. Onat A., et al. “Measures of abdominal obesity assessed for visceral adiposity and relation tocoronary risk”. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 28 (2004): 1018-1025.
  17. Watts K., et al. “Exercise training normalizes vascular dysfunction and improves central adiposity in obese adolescents”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 43 (2004): 1823-1827.
  18. Whincup PH., et al. “Arterial distensibility in adolescents: the influence of adiposity, the metabolic syndrome, and classic risk factors”. Circulation 112 (2005): 1789-1797.
  19. Prasad S., et al. “Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with acute myocardial infarction”. Heart, Lung and Circulation 3 (2008): S136.
Citation: Abid H Laghari., et al. “Description of the Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Myocardial Infarction”. EC Cardiology 7.9 (2020): 79-84.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 15, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.