Volume 7 Issue 8 - 2020
Left Atrial Enlargement, Arterial Hypertension and Atrial Fibrillation, Another Framingham Clue in the XXI Century
Arnaldo Rodríguez León1*, Alain Alonso Herrera2, Suruj Harrichand3, Chabeli Alicia Lugo Cordero4 and Laritza Rodríguez Martínez5
1Cardiology Service, University Hospital Celestino Hernández, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba
2Department of Echocardiography, University Hospital Cardiocentro Ernesto Guevara, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba
3Cardiology Resident, University Hospital Cardiocentro Ernesto Guevara, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba
4Comprehensive General Medicine, Teaching Policlinic XX Aniversario, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba
5Comprehensive General Medicine Resident, Teaching Policlinic Ernesto Guevara, Cienfuegos, Cuba
*Corresponding Author: Arnaldo Rodríguez León, Cardiology Service, University Hospital Celestino Hernández, Santa Clara, Villa Clara, Cuba.
Received: June 19, 2020; Published: July 07, 2020

Arterial hypertension is a systemic condition characterized by elevated blood pressure in the vascular system. Despite the great effort of scientific community to sensitize population to the problem, enforcing the preventive and treatment measures, this condition continues to be responsible for a large portion of global mortality, as it represents one of the major modifiable risk factors for adverse cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular events in both developed and developing countries [1]. Long-term arterial hypertension can cause coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, vision loss, and chronic kidney disease [2]. Left atrial enlargement (LAE) is a marker of left ventricular (LV) pressure and volume overload. The size of the left atrium (LA) is increased in numerous CV disorders and is characterized by alterations in LV structure and function, such as mitral valve or myocardial disease and arterial hypertension [3]. In hypertensive heart disease, LAE is a reliable marker of a chronically elevated LV filling pressure and diastolic dysfunction even in the absence of mitral valve disease [4,5].


  1. Castillo RR. “The big challenge in cardiovascular disease control in low- and middle-income countries”. EC Cardiology 7.3 (2020): 1-2.
  2. Cortese F., et al. “Vascular, cardiac and renal target organ damage associated to arterial hypertension: which noninvasive tools for detection?” Journal of Human Hypertension (2020): 1-12.  
  3. Cuspidi C., et al. “Prevalence and correlates of left atrial enlargement in essential hypertension: role of ventricular geometry and the metabolic syndrome: the evaluation of target organ damage in hypertension study”. Journal of Hypertension 23 (2005): 875-882.
  4. Noha Hassanin. “Left Atrium Function in Systemic Hypertension”. International Journal of Science and Research 4.4 (2015): 434-438.
  5. Li Yang., et al. “Evaluation of left atrial function in hypertensive patients with and without left ventricular hypertrophy using velocity vector imaging”. The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging 30 (2014): 1465-1471. 
  6. Ezzati M. “Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: A pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants”. Lancet 389 (2017): 37-55. 
  7. Niiranen TJ., et al. “Relative contributions of arterial stiffness and hypertension to cardiovascular disease: the Framingham Heart Study”. Journal of the American Heart Association 5 (2016): e004271.
  8. Cheng S., et al. “Correlates of echocardiographic indices of cardiac remodeling over the adult life course: longitudinal observations from the Framingham Heart Study”. Circulation 122 (2010): 570-578.
  9. Thomas L., et al. “Left atrial structure and function, and left ventricular disfunction”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 73.15 (2019): 1961-1977. 
  10. Benjamin EJ., et al. “Left atrial size and the risk of stroke and death. The Framingham Heart study”. Circulation 92 (1995): 835-841.
  11. Jae-Hwan L and Jae-Hyeong P. “Role of echocardiography in clinical hypertension”. Clinical Hypertension 21.1 (2015): 9.
  12. Sahebjam M., et al. “Comparison of left atrial function between hypertensive patients with normal atrial size and normotensive subjects using strain rate imaging technique”. Archives of Cardiovascular Imaging 2.1 (2014): e160. 
  13. Chirife R., et al. “Electrocardiographic detection of left atrial enlargement. Correlation of P wave with left atrial dimensions by echocardiography”. British Heart Journal 37 (1975): 1281-1285.
  14. Sharma S., et al. “Study of left atrial enlargement and its correlation with left ventricular hipertrophy in patients with systemic hypertension”. Indian Journal of Research 7.2 (2018): 82-84.
  15. Mishra A., et al. “Study on the diagnostic accuracy of left atrial enlargement by resting electrocardiography and its echocardiographic correlation”. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 52.1 (2008): 31-42.
  16. Hoit BD. “Left atrial size and function: role in prognosis”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 63.6 (2014): 493-505.
  17. Schnabel RB., et al. “Development of a risk score for atrial fibrillation in the community; The Framingham Heart Study”. Lancet 373.9665 (2009): 739-745. 
  18. Vaziri SM., et al. “Echocardiographic predictors of nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation. The Framingham Heart Study”. Circulation 89.2.2 (1994): 724-730.
  19. Tsang TS., et al. “Prediction of cardiovascular outcomes with left atrial size: is volume superior to area or diameter?” The American Journal of Cardiology 47.5 (2006): 1018-1023.
  20. Patel DA., et al. “Clinical Implications of Left Atrial Enlargement: a review”. Ochsner Journal 9.4 (2009): 191-196.
  21. Williams B., et al. “2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension”. European Heart Journal 39 (2018): 3021-3104.
  22. Wachtell K., et al. “Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to Atenolol. The Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) Study”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 45 (2005): 712-719.
  23. Bombelli M., et al. “Prognostic significance of left atrial enlargement in general population. Results of PAMELA study”. Hypertension 64 (2014): 1205-1211.
  24. Kizer JR., et al. “Left atrial diameter as an independent predictor of first clinical cardiovascular events in middle-aged and elderly adults: the Strong Heart Study (SHS)”. American Heart Journal 151.2 (2006): 412-418.
  25. ML Muiesan., et al. “P5460Prevalence of left atrial enlargement in a large sample of patients undergoing an echocardiogram for cardiovascular risk stratification at an ESH excellence centre in Italy”. Journal of Hypertension 37.1 (2019): e6-e7.
Citation: Arnaldo Rodríguez León., et al. “Left Atrial Enlargement, Arterial Hypertension and Atrial Fibrillation, Another Framingham Clue in the XXI Century”. EC Cardiology 7.8 (2020): 06-09.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 13, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.