Review Article
Volume 7 Issue 7 - 2020
Cardiovascular Benefits of Turmeric (Curcumin) in Humans: Evidence from Clinical Trials
Sunil Reddy D
Head, Department of Cardiology, Russh Superspeciality Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
*Corresponding Author: Sunil Reddy D, Head, Department of Cardiology, Russh Superspeciality Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Received: June 06, 2020; Published: June 26, 2020


Turmeric has been used for centuries in alternative system of medicine (ASM) for treating multiple ailments owing to its organoleptic, protective and therapeutic effects. Curcumin is a major active component of turmeric which is extracted from the dry rhizome of Curcuma longa. A major limitation to using curcumin as a therapeutic agent is its poor bioavailability.

Although numerous animal studies have shown promising cardiovascular benefits of curcumin, very few human studies have been conducted till date addressing the cardiovascular benefits of curcumin in humans. There is variability in curcumin metabolism between humans and animals limiting the validity and extrapolation of the results of animal studies to humans. This review consolidates the available evidence from human studies which have reported the effects of curcumin on various causative factors implicated in pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Positive results with curcumin were seen in studies reporting anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant activity, effect on endothelial function, metabolic syndrome and in post cardiac surgery settings, with insignificant or mixed results in other factors studied. Larger and well randomized studies need to be conducted to establish the possible therapeutic role of curcumin, if any, in primary and secondary prevention of various cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Cardiovascular; Turmeric (Curcumin); Human trials


  1. Sharma RA., et al. “Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study of oral curcuma extract in patients with colorectal cancer”. Clinical Cancer Research 7 (2001): 1894-1900.
  2. Panahi Y., et al. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of curcuminoid-piperine combination in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A randomized controlled trial and an updated meta-analysis”. Clinical Nutrition 34 (2015): 1101-1108.
  3. Sahebkar A., et al. “Curcumin downregulates human tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Pharmacological Research 107 (2016): 234-242.
  4. Derosa G., et al. “Effect of curcumin on circulating interleukin-6 concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. Pharmacological Research 111 (2016): 394-404.
  5. Panahi Y., et al. “Effects of curcumin on serum cytokine concentrations in subjects with metabolic syndrome: A post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial”. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy 82 (2016): 578-582.
  6. Ganjali S., et al. “Investigation of the effects of curcumin on serum cytokines in obese individuals: A randomized controlled trial”. The Scientific World Journal 11 (2014): 6.
  7. Alwi I., et al. “The Effects of Curcumin against the Inflammatory Response in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome”. Cardiovasc Pharm Open Access 5 (2016): 185.
  8. Kamath DY., et al. “High sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and cardiovascular disease: An Indian perspective”. Indian Journal of Medical Research 3 (2015): 261-268.
  9. AC Reddy and BR Lokesh. “Studies on the inhibitory effects of curcumin and eugenol on the formation of reactive oxygen species and the oxidation of ferrous iron”. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 137 (1994): 1- 8.
  10. MK Unnikrishnan and MN Rao. “Curcumin inhibits nitrogen dioxide induced oxidation of hemoglobin”. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 146 (1995): 35-37.
  11. Sahebkar A., et al. “Effect of curcuminoids on oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials”. The Journal of Functional Foods 18 (2015): 898-909.
  12. Yang H., et al. “Curcumin attenuates urinary excretion of albumin in type II diabetic patients with enhancing nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) system and repressing inflammatory signaling efficacies”. Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology and Diabetes 123 (2015): 360-367.
  13. Nieman DC., et al. “Influence of red pepper spice and turmeric on inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers in overweight females: A metabolomics approach”. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 67 (2012): 415-421.
  14. Huang HC., et al. “Inhibitory effect of curcumin, an antiinflammatory agent, on vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation”. European Journal of Pharmacology 2-3 (1992): 381-384.
  15. Patumraj S., et al. “Combined effects of curcumin and vitamin C to protect endothelial dysfunction in the iris tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats”. Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 35 (2006): 481-489.
  16. Oliver JM., et al. “Novel form of curcumin improves endothelial function in young, healthy individuals: A double-blind placebo controlled study”. Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism (2016): 1089653.
  17. Usharani P., et al. “Effect of NCB-02, atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial function, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, 8-week study”. Drugs R D 9 (2008): 243-250.
  18. Santos-Parker JR., et al. “Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress”. Aging 9 (2017): 187-208.
  19. Akazawa N., et al. “Curcumin ingestion and exercise training improve vascular endothelial function in postmenopausal women”. Nutrition Research 10 (2012): 795‐799.
  20. Kim Y and Clifton P. “Curcumin, Cardiometabolic Health and Dementia”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10 (2018): 2093.
  21. Sahebkar A. “A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of curcumin on blood lipid levels”. Clinical Nutrition 33 (2014): 406-414.
  22. Cicero AFG., et al. “Lipid lowering nutraceuticals in clinical practice: Position paper from an international lipid expert panel”. Archives of Medical Science 13 (2017): 965-1005.
  23. Rahmani S., et al. “Treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease with curcumin: A randomized placebo-controlled trial”. Phytotherapy Research 30 (2016): 1540-1548.
  24. Yang YS., et al. “Lipid-lowering effects of curcumin in patients with metabolic syndrome: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial”. Phytotherapy Research 28 (2014): 1770-1777.
  25. Alwi I., et al. “The effect of curcumin on lipid level in patients with acute coronary syndrome”. Acta Medica Indonesiana 4 (2008): 201‐210.
  26. Santos-Parker JR., et al. “Curcumin supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in healthy middle-aged and older adults by increasing nitric oxide bioavailability and reducing oxidative stress”. Aging 9 (2017): 187-208.
  27. Moss JW and Ramji DP. “Nutraceutical therapies for atherosclerosis”. Nature Reviews Cardiology 9 (2016): 513‐532.
  28. Saenz J., et al. “Curcumin enhances LXR alpha in an AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent manner in human macrophages”. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 54 (2018): 48-56.
  29. Mirzabeigi P., et al. “The Effect of Curcumin on some of Traditional and Non-traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors: A Pilot Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial”. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2 (2015): 479‐486.
  30. Panahi Y., et al. “Curcuminoids modify lipid profile in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial”. Complementary Therapies in Medicine 33 (2017): 1‐5.
  31. Kimball SM., et al. “Retrospective Analysis of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Parameters in Participants of a Preventive Health and Wellness Program”. Journal of Integrative Medicine 3 (2019): 78-95.
  32. Hariri M and Haghighatdoost F. “Effect of curcumin on anthropometric measures: A systematic review on randomized clinical trials”. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 37 (2018): 215-222.
  33. Hewlings SJ and Kalman DS. “Curcumin: A Review of Its' Effects on Human Health”. Foods 10 (2017): 92.
  34. Kuptniratsaikul V., et al. “Efficacy and safety of Curcuma domestica extracts compared with ibuprofen in patients with knee osteoarthritis: A multicenter study”. Clinical Interventions in Aging 9 (2014): 451-458.
  35. Sunagawa Y., et al. “Curcumin and its demethoxy derivatives possess p300 HAT inhibitory activity and suppress hypertrophic responses in cardiomyocytes”. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 136 (2018): 212-217.
  36. Morimoto Tatsuya., et al. “Highly absorptive curcumin improves left ventricular diastolic function regardless of blood pressure in hypertensive patients”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 59 (2012): E987.
  37. Wongcharoen Wanwarang., et al. “Effects of Curcuminoids on Frequency of Acute Myocardial Infarction After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting”. The American Journal of Cardiology 110 (2012): 40-44.
  38. Sukardi R., et al. “The role of curcumin as an inhibitor of oxidative stress caused by ischaemia re-perfusion injury in tetralogy of Fallot patients undergoing corrective surgery”. Cardiology in the Young 26 (2016): 431-438.
Citation: Sunil Reddy D. “Cardiovascular Benefits of Turmeric (Curcumin) in Humans: Evidence from Clinical Trials”. EC Cardiology 7.7 (2020): 24-31.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

November Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the November issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before December 13, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.