Research Article
Volume 4 Issue 1 - 2021
Effect of Demographic and Socio-Economic Factors in Nutritional Status of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Enrolled in Antiretroviral Therapy in Khartoum State - Sudan
Afnan Abdelhiem Mohamed Elmgboul1, Mubarak Musa Abdullah Haseep1*, Rafiah Awad Mohamed Adam1 and Salah Ahmed MA Abdallah2
1Department of Nutrition, faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan
22Deptepment of Biotechnology faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University. Omdurman, Sudan
*Corresponding Author: Mubarak Musa Abdullah Haseep, Department of Nutrition, faculty of Science and Technology, Omdurman Islamic University, Omdurman, Sudan.
Received: November 11, 2020; Published: December 30, 2020


Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is responsible for the occurrence of a disease that known Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are highly prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, that weakens the immune system to such a degree that it is no longer able to fight off infections, otherwise harmless to healthy individuals.

Aim: The aim of this study is to assessment demographic and socio-economic factors in Nutritional Status of AIDS patients enrolled in Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) in Khartoum State - Sudan.

Methodology: A cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out at all (ART) centers in Khartoum State. The study population involved adult AIDS patients who are currently on Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy for period not less than six months. 301 participants were included in this study through a systematic randomization selection, and participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Collecting data included demographic and socio-economic characteristics of participants, their nutritional anthropometry based on body mass index BMI, dietary intake assessment and hemoglobin (Hb) were reported. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20 was used for data entry and analysis.

Results: The results showed that 56.5% of the participants were males, and 61.5% were in the age group 30 to less than 40 years, 44% were married, about two thirds(65.2%) had low level of education, and 46.8% were of low socio- economic status. Concerning nutritional status the data indicated that mean BMI was (23.55 ± 4.13) for females compared to (22.94 ± 3.68) for the males; and (23.21 ± 3.9) for all. 50.8% of the participants had normal BMI, and 33.3% were overweight. Significant relationship between nutritional status BMI and participants’ gender was found (P-value 0.031). Males are more likely to be under weight than females who showed tendency for being overweight and obese. Hemoglobin levels also were found to be significantly associated with the gender of the participants (P-value 0.001) and nutrition status (0.000), as more than two thirds 67.1% of males were anemic compared to less than half 49.2% of the females, and participants with low BMI are more likely to be anemic compared to those with normal or high BMI.

Conclusion: Although the study showed that the majority of participants were anemic, but the positive effect of treatment was reflected on the BMI, thus combination of antiretroviral treatment and provision of good nutritional services is expected to improve the quality of life of (PLHIV) in Sudan through decreasing morbidity and mortality. In addition, nutritional status assessment and nutritional therapy should be considered as an integral part of the HIV care and treatment program in the country.

Keywords: Nutrition Status; HIV; AIDS; BMI; Hb; Socio- Economic


  1. Global AIDS Updates (2016).
  2. International Labour Conference, 98th Session, Report IV (1): HIV/AIDS and the world of work, Fourth item on the agenda, International Labour Office Geneva (2009).
  3. Zimbabwe National HIV and AIDS Strategic Plan [ZNASP II] 2011-2015, ©National AIDS Council (2011).
  4. “HIV/AIDS: nutritional implications and impact on human development”. ENAM Project, Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa”. USA (2008): 1061.
  5. Rajshree Thapa., et al. “Nutritional status and its association with quality of life among people living with HIV attending public anti-retroviral therapy sites of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal”. AIDS Research and Therapy 12 (2015): 14.
  6. Republic of Zambia ministry of health. Nutrition Guidelines for Care and Support of People Living with HIV and AIDS. Strengthening the scaling up and impact of innovative food security approaches for people living with HIV in Zambia (2011).
  7. Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) and LINKAGES projects. RCQHC is a regional quality of health care capacity development institute largely supported by REDSO/ESA in Nariobi and Makerere University, Kampala, Kampala – Uganda, Regional Centre for Quality of Health Care. Nutritional care for People Living with HIV/AIDS (2013).
  8. Saskia de Pee and Richard D Semba. “Role of nutrition in HIV infection: Review of evidence for more effective programming in resource-limited settings”. Food and Nutrition Bulletin4 (2010).
  9. Abednego K Bansah. “Food Insecurity, Depression, and Energy Security among Individuals Living With HIV/AIDS in Rural Appalachia”. Abednego K. Bansah. All Rights Reserved- West Virginia (2011).
  10. Jolanda Coetzee (Yssel). “The impact of a high protein food supplement on the nutritional status of HIV infected patient on ARV treatment and their families, Free State - USA (2013).
  11. Mgbekem IJ Atangwho., et al. “Food Consumption Patterns and Nutritional Status of People Living with HIV in Calabar”. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition10 (2015): 727-734.
  12. Oldewage-Theron W and Kruger R. “Dietary diversity and adequacy of female caregivers in a Peri- urban informal settlement in South Africa”. The South African Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2010).
  13. Aranka Anema., et al. “Food Insecurity and HIV/AIDS: Current Knowledge, Gaps, and Research Priorities, by Current Medicine Group LLC- USA (2009).
  14. Nanziri Carol. “Factors associated with dietary intake among HIV positive adults (18-65 years) at the mild may center, Kampala, Uganda (2004).
  15. Kristy M Hendricks., et al. “Dietary patterns and health and nutrition outcomes in men living with HIV infection”. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 6 (2008): 1584-1592.
  16. Denise Evans., et al. “Impact of nutritional supplementation on immune response, body mass index and bioelectrical impedance in HIV-positive patients starting antiretroviral therapy”. Nutrition Journal 12 (2013): 111.
  17. Marthe-Elise Ngo-Matip., et al. “Impact of daily supplementation of Spirulinaplatensis on the immune system of naïve HIV-1 patients in Cameroon: a 12-months single blind, randomized, multicenter trial”. Nutrition Journal 14 (2015): 70.
  18. Craig RCohen., et al. “ShambaMaisha: Pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial Kenya, Springer Plus 4 (2015): 122.
  19. Sudan National AIDS Control Program (SNAP). Sudan (2013).
  20. Mona Groß., et al. “Unemployment, health, and education of HIV-infected males in Germany 61 (2015): 593-602.
  21. Unge C., et al. “Long-term adherence to antiretroviral treatment and program drop-out in a high-risk urban setting in sub-saharan Africa: a prospective cohort study”. PLoS One10 (2010): e13613.
  22. Hailemariam S., et al. “Malnutrition: Prevalence and its associated factors in People living with HIV/AIDS, in Dilla University Referral Hospital”. Archives of Public Health1 (2013): 13.
  23. Deepika and Seema Puri. “Anthropometric and Nutritional Profile of People Living with HIV and AIDS in India”. AIDS Research and Therapy 12 (2015): 14.
  24. Carolline de Araújo Mariz., et al. “Body mass index in individuals with HIV infection and factors associated with thinness and overweight/obesity”. Cad SaúdePública, Rio de Janeiro 10 (1997): 1997-2008.
  25. Eugene Kinyanda., et al. “Prevalence and risk factors of major depressive disorder in HIV/AIDS as seen in semi-urban Entebbe district, Uganda”. BMC Psychiatry 11 (2011): 205.
  26. Wen Hu MD., et al. “Malnutrition in hospitalized people living with HIV/AIDS: evidence from a cross sectional study from Chengdu, China”. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 4 (2011): 544-550.
  27. Gebrehiwot Teklay., et al. “Adverse Effects and Regimen Switch among Patients on Antiretroviral Treatment in a Resource Limited Setting in Ethiopia”. Journal of Pharmacovigilance 1 (2013): 4.
  28. Belaynew Wasie., et al. “Nutritional status of adults living with HIV/AIDS at the university of Gondar referral hospital, north west Ethiopia”. Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences 1 (2010).
  29. Dereje Gedle., et al. “Prevalence of malnutrition and its associated factors among adult people living with HIV/AIDS receiving anti-retroviral therapy at Butajira Hospital, southern Ethiopia”. BMC Nutrition 1 (2015): 5.
  30. Tsegazeab Hailu Hadgu., et al. “Under nutrition among HIV positive women in Humera hospital”. Tigray - Ethiopia (2013).
  31. M van Lettow., et al. “Low plasma selenium concentrations, high plasma human immunodeficiency virus load and high interleukin-6 concentrations are risk factors associated with anemia in adults presenting with pulmonary tuberculosis in Zomba district, Malawi”. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (2005): 526-532. 2005.
  32. Enju Liu., et al. “Nutritional Status and Mortality Among HIV Infected Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Tanzania”. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 204 (2011): 282-290.
  33. Maryline Sicotte., et al. “Nutritional status of HIV-infected patients during the first year HAART in two West African cohorts”. Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition 34 (2015): 1.
  34. Molla Daniel., et al. “Nutritional status and associated factors among adult HIV/AIDS clients in FelegeHiwot Referral Hospital, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia”. Science Journal of Public Health (2013).
  35. Agatha Christine Onyango., et al. “Anthropometric and Dietary Profile of HIV Sero-positive Patients in Chulaimbo Sub-District Hospital, Kenya”. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences3 (2011): 34-44.
  36. BA Denue., et al. “Body mass index changes during highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria, Eastern Mediterranean”. Health Journal EMHJ 3 (2013).
  37. Noelle A Benzekri., et al. “High Prevalence of Severe Food Insecurity and Malnutrition among HIV-Infected Adultsin Senegal, West Africa”. PLoS ONE 11 (2015): e0141819.
  38. Cameron Bowie., et al. “An assessment of food supplementation to chronically sick patients receiving home based care in Bangwe, Malawi: a descriptive study”. Nutrition Journal 4 (2005): 12.
  39. Kate A Greenaway., et al. “Examining the integration of Food by Prescription into HIV care and treatment in Zambia, © (2016).
  40. Ana Célia Oliveira dos Santos and Ana Maria Rampeloti Almeida. “Nutritional status and CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy”. Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical6 (2013): 698-703.
  41. Simbarashe Takuva., et al. “Anemia among HIV-Infected Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa: Improvement in Hemoglobin regardless of Degree of Immunosuppression and the Initiating ART Regimen”. Journal of Tropical Medicine (2013): 6.
  42. Catherine Martin., et al. “HIV Symptom Burden and Anemia among HIV-Positive Individuals: Cross-Sectional Results of a Community-Based Positive Living with HIV (POLH) Study in Nepal (2015).
  43. Hannah M Lipshultz., et al. “Anemia is associated with monocyte activation in HIV-infected adults on antiretroviral therapy, USA - PubMed Link (2015).
  44. Wabyahe Malenganisho., et al. “Intake of Alcoholic Beverages is a Predictor of Iron Status and Hemoglobin in Adult Tanzanians”. The Journal of Nutrition Community and International Nutrition (2007).
  45. Grace Rinmecit Pennap and Khadijah Abubakar. “Prevalence of Anemia among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infected Patients Accessing Healthcare in Federal Medical Center Keffi, Nigeria (2015).
Citation: Mubarak Musa Abdullah Haseep., et al. “Effect of Demographic and Socio-Economic Factors in Nutritional Status of People Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Enrolled in Antiretroviral Therapy in Khartoum State - Sudan”.EC Clinical & Medical Case Reports 4.1 (2021): 09-23.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

April Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the April issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for upcoming Issue

Ecronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before April 22, 2021.

Certificate of Publication

Ecronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

Ecronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.

Immediate Assistance

The prime motto of this team is to clarify all the queries without any delay or hesitation to avoid the inconvenience. For immediate assistance on your queries please don't hesitate to drop an email to