Guest Editorial
Volume 3 Issue 6 - 2020
Coronavirus (COVID-19), Comorbidities, and Acute Vascular Events
Gundu HR Rao*
Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Director, Thrombosis Research, Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, USA
*Corresponding Author: Gundu HR Rao, Emeritus Professor, Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Director, Thrombosis Research, Lillehei Heart Institute, University of Minnesota, USA.
Received: May 09, 2020; Published: May 22, 2020

Coronavirus disease pandemic has created a public health havoc worldwide. In. view of the mandatory lockdown in majority of countries, it also has caused a great economic crisis. The Spanish Flu of 1918, infected quarter of the global population (500 million) and killed 50 million individuals. No pandemic in the history of this planet, has caused as much panic, fear, anxiety, and frustration as the coronavirus disease. The Covid-19 is affecting 212 countries and territories around the world. Antarctica is the only continent not yet reached by the 2019-20 coronavirus pandemic. At the time of this writing there are more than 3.8 million cases worldwide, with 270,000 reported deaths. Ranking according to the number of infections is as follows: USA (1.2 million), Spain (216,582), Italy (207,428, UK (182, 260), Germany (164, 316), France (130, 185), Russia (124, 054), Turkey (122, 392), Iran (96, 448), Brazil (92, 630) and China (82, 875). Despite this ranking for number of infections, the ranking for the of deaths is quite different; USA (73,667), United Kingdom (30,076), Spain (25,857), Italy (29, 684), France (24, 594), Germany (6,735), There are so many facts related to the COVID-19 infection, that cannot be described rationally. For instance, Italy’s case fatality rate (CFR) is ten times higher than Germany’s (BBC News). The ranking for CFR is as follows: Italy (11.39), UK (8.17), China (4.05), USA (1.92), South Korea (1.66), Germany (1.0). At the time of this writing, we will have to analyze the infection rate, number of deaths, disparities related to the geography, ethnicity, and comorbidities separately for each country. No generalizations can be made with any degree of accuracy. Although experts’ say that it’s too early to determine, what role different healthcare systems play, in the severity of the COVID-19 pandemic, it’s undeniable that each country’s health care structural organizations, influence its public health response, when faced with such unprecedented virus disease pandemic.


  1. Zhou P., et al. “A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin”. Nature 579 (2020): 270-273.
  2. Sungnak W., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 entry factors are highly expressed in nasal epithelial cells together with innate immune genes”. Nature Medicine (2020).
  3. Yancy CW. “COVID-19 and African Americans”. The Journal of the American Medical Association (2020).
  4. Richardson S., et al. “Presenting characteristics, comorbidities, and outcomes among 5700 patients hospitalized with covid-19 in the New York city area”. The Journal of the American Medical Association (2020).
  5. Guan W., et al. “Comorbidity and its impact on 1590 patients with Covid-19 in China: A Nationwide Analysis”. European Respiratory Journal (2020).
  6. Fang L., et al. “Are patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus at increased risk for COVID-19 infection? Lancet”. Lancet4 (2020): E21.
  7. Vaduganathan M., et al. “Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Covid-19”. The New England Journal of Medicine 17 (2020): 1653-1659.
  8. Bonow RO., et al. “Association of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with myocardial injury and mortality”. The Journal of the American Medical Association Cardiology (2020).
  9. Shi S., et al. “Association of cardiac injury with mortality in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China”. The Journal of the American Medical Association Cardiology (2020).
  10. Guo T., et al. “Cardiovascular implications of fatal outcomes of patients with corona virus disease 2019(COVID-19) ”. The Journal of the American Medical Association Cardiology (2020).
  11. Coagulopathy and antiphospholipid antibodies in patients with Covid-19”. The New England Journal of Medicine 382 (2020): e38.
  12. Brandon MH., et al. “Hyperinflammation and derangement of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in COVID-19: A novel hypothesis for clinically suspected hyper coagulopathy and microvascualr immunothrombosis”. Clinica Chimica Acta 507 (2020): 167-173.
  13. Merad M and Martin JC. “Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role of monocytes and macrophages”. Nature Reviews Immunology (2020).
  14. Kollias A., et al. “Thromboembolic risk and anticoagulant therapy in COVID-19 patients: emerging evidence for call for action”. Journal of the British Society for Haematology (2020).
  15. Bikdeli B., et al. “COVID-19 and Thrombotic or Thromboembolic Disease: Implications for Prevention, Antithrombotic therapy, and follow-up”. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 5 (2020): 531-538.
  16. Granlinski LE., et al. “Mechanisms of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-Induced Acute Lung Injury”. mBio4 (2013): e00271-e00213.
  17. Tang N., et al. “Anticoagulant treatment is associated with decreased mortality in severe coronavirus dieses 2019 patients with coagulopathy”. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 5 (2020): 1094-1099.
  18. Barnes BJ., et al. “Targeting potential drivers of Covid-19: Neutrophil extracellular traps”. Journal of Experimental Medicine 6 (2020): e20200652.
  19. Thachil J., et al. “ISTH interim guidance on recognition and management of coagulopathy in Covid-19”. Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis 5 (2020).
  20. Agnelli G., et al. “Apixaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism associated with cancer”. The New England Journal of Medicine 382 (2020): 1599-1607.
  21. Zhong X., et al. “The outcomes of hyperbaric oxygen therapy to retrieve hypoxemia of severe novel coronavirus pneumonia: first case report”. Zhonghua Hanghai Yixue yu Gaoqiya Yixue Zazhi (2020).
  22. Harch P. “Hyperbaric oxygen treatment of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) respiratory failure”. Medical Gas Research (2020).
Citation: Gundu HR Rao. “Coronavirus (COVID-19), Comorbidities, and Acute Vascular Events”. EC Clinical and Medical Case Reports 3.6 (2020): 87-91.

PubMed Indexed Article

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
LC-UV-MS and MS/MS Characterize Glutathione Reactivity with Different Isomers (2,2' and 2,4' vs. 4,4') of Methylene Diphenyl-Diisocyanate.

PMID: 31143884 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6536005

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Alzheimer's Pathogenesis, Metal-Mediated Redox Stress, and Potential Nanotheranostics.

PMID: 31565701 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6764777

EC Neurology
Differences in Rate of Cognitive Decline and Caregiver Burden between Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia: a Retrospective Study.

PMID: 27747317 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5065347

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Will Blockchain Technology Transform Healthcare and Biomedical Sciences?

PMID: 31460519 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6711478

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Is it a Prime Time for AI-powered Virtual Drug Screening?

PMID: 30215059 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133253

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Analysis of Evidence for the Combination of Pro-dopamine Regulator (KB220PAM) and Naltrexone to Prevent Opioid Use Disorder Relapse.

PMID: 30417173 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6226033

EC Anaesthesia
Arrest Under Anesthesia - What was the Culprit? A Case Report.

PMID: 30264037 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6155992

EC Orthopaedics
Distraction Implantation. A New Technique in Total Joint Arthroplasty and Direct Skeletal Attachment.

PMID: 30198026 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6124505

EC Pulmonology and Respiratory Medicine
Prevalence and factors associated with self-reported chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among adults aged 40-79: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012.

PMID: 30294723 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6169793

EC Dental Science
Important Dental Fiber-Reinforced Composite Molding Compound Breakthroughs

PMID: 29285526 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5743211

EC Microbiology
Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Among HIV Infected and HIV Uninfected Patients Treated at the 1o De Maio Health Centre in Maputo, Mozambique

PMID: 29911204 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5999047

EC Microbiology
Macrophages and the Viral Dissemination Super Highway

PMID: 26949751 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4774560

EC Microbiology
The Microbiome, Antibiotics, and Health of the Pediatric Population.

PMID: 27390782 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4933318

EC Microbiology
Reactive Oxygen Species in HIV Infection

PMID: 28580453 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5450819

EC Microbiology
A Review of the CD4 T Cell Contribution to Lung Infection, Inflammation and Repair with a Focus on Wheeze and Asthma in the Pediatric Population

PMID: 26280024 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC4533840

EC Neurology
Identifying Key Symptoms Differentiating Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome from Multiple Sclerosis

PMID: 28066845 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5214344

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Paradigm Shift is the Normal State of Pharmacology

PMID: 28936490 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5604476

EC Neurology
Examining those Meeting IOM Criteria Versus IOM Plus Fibromyalgia

PMID: 28713879 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5510658

EC Neurology
Unilateral Frontosphenoid Craniosynostosis: Case Report and a Review of the Literature

PMID: 28133641 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5267489

EC Ophthalmology
OCT-Angiography for Non-Invasive Monitoring of Neuronal and Vascular Structure in Mouse Retina: Implication for Characterization of Retinal Neurovascular Coupling

PMID: 29333536 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5766278

EC Neurology
Longer Duration of Downslope Treadmill Walking Induces Depression of H-Reflexes Measured during Standing and Walking.

PMID: 31032493 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6483108

EC Microbiology
Onchocerciasis in Mozambique: An Unknown Condition for Health Professionals.

PMID: 30957099 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6448571

EC Nutrition
Food Insecurity among Households with and without Podoconiosis in East and West Gojjam, Ethiopia.

PMID: 30101228 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6086333

EC Ophthalmology
REVIEW. +2 to +3 D. Reading Glasses to Prevent Myopia.

PMID: 31080964 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6508883

EC Gynaecology
Biomechanical Mapping of the Female Pelvic Floor: Uterine Prolapse Versus Normal Conditions.

PMID: 31093608 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6513001

EC Dental Science
Fiber-Reinforced Composites: A Breakthrough in Practical Clinical Applications with Advanced Wear Resistance for Dental Materials.

PMID: 31552397 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6758937

EC Microbiology
Neurocysticercosis in Child Bearing Women: An Overlooked Condition in Mozambique and a Potentially Missed Diagnosis in Women Presenting with Eclampsia.

PMID: 31681909 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824723

EC Microbiology
Molecular Detection of Leptospira spp. in Rodents Trapped in the Mozambique Island City, Nampula Province, Mozambique.

PMID: 31681910 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6824726

EC Neurology
Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases.

PMID: 31528859 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6746603

EC Psychology and Psychiatry
Can Chronic Consumption of Caffeine by Increasing D2/D3 Receptors Offer Benefit to Carriers of the DRD2 A1 Allele in Cocaine Abuse?

PMID: 31276119 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6604646

EC Anaesthesia
Real Time Locating Systems and sustainability of Perioperative Efficiency of Anesthesiologists.

PMID: 31406965 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6690616

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
A Pilot STEM Curriculum Designed to Teach High School Students Concepts in Biochemical Engineering and Pharmacology.

PMID: 31517314 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6741290

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Toxic Mechanisms Underlying Motor Activity Changes Induced by a Mixture of Lead, Arsenic and Manganese.

PMID: 31633124 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6800226

EC Neurology
Research Volunteers' Attitudes Toward Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis.

PMID: 29662969 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC5898812

EC Pharmacology and Toxicology
Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease.

PMID: 30215058 [PubMed]

PMCID: PMC6133268

News and Events

August Issue Release

We always feel pleasure to share our updates with you all. Here, notifying you that we have successfully released the August issue of respective journals and the latest articles can be viewed on the current issue pages.

Submission Deadline for Upcoming Issue

ECronicon delightfully welcomes all the authors around the globe for effective collaboration with an article submission for the upcoming issue of respective journals. Submissions are accepted on/before August 18, 2022.

Certificate of Publication

ECronicon honors with a "Publication Certificate" to the corresponding author by including the names of co-authors as a token of appreciation for publishing the work with our respective journals.

Best Article of the Issue

Editors of respective journals will always be very much interested in electing one Best Article after each issue release. The authors of the selected article will be honored with a "Best Article of the Issue" certificate.

Certifying for Review

ECronicon certifies the Editors for their first review done towards the assigned article of the respective journals.

Latest Articles

The latest articles will be updated immediately on the articles in press page of the respective journals.